Biological control of major fungal causal agent of root and crown rot of bean in Zanjan province with antagonistic bacteria

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former M.Sc. Student Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Razi, Kermanshah, Iran


Root and crown rot of bean caused with Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the important diseases of bean in Zanjan province. Using native biocontrol agents integrated with chemical agents is one of the effective management strategies. This is also important to choose control methods effective against all major fungal pathogens and mixed contamination of bean, with them. This research was conducted to study synergistic effect of three major fungal pathogens and biocontrol effects of some native rhizobacteria on disease. During the mid-summer of 2011, 46 bacterial isolates were obtained from bean rhizosphere in Zanjan bean fields. Two isolates of each three fungal species (pathogenic on bean) were also received from mycology collection of Zanjan University. Two isolates of Rhizobacteria were chosen as the best biocontrol agents against all three fungi in terms of production of antibiotic, volatile metabolites, HCN and protease and selected for in-vitro antagonistic experiments. Greenhouse results showed that, seed treatment of bean with bacteria, decreased the disease and increased some vegetative factors of the plant. There was synergistic effect among the fungal species.



    1. Anonymous. (2014). Statistical year book of Agriculture. Ministry of Jihade Agriculture. Available at: (in Farsi)
    2. Omati, F., Sharifi-Tehrani, A., Mohammadi, M., Hedjaroud, G.A. & Zad, J. (2004). Antagonistic effects of Bacillus and Peseudomonas isolates on Phytophthora capsici the causal agent of pepper damping-off.  Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 4, 45-52. (in Farsi)
    3. Abeysinghe, S. (2007). Biological control of Fusarium solani f. sp. Phaseoli the causal agent of root rot of bean using Bacillus subtilis CA32 and Trichoderma harzianum RU0. Ruhuna Journal of Sciences, 2, 82-88.
    4. Ahmadzadeh, M., Sharifi-Tehrani, A., Hejaroud, G.A., Zad, J., Okhovat, M., Mohammadi, M. (2003). Effects of Fluorescent Pseudomonads on Pythıum ultımum casual agent of seed rot of common bean. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 34(4), 793-807. (in Farsi)
    5. Alstron, S. (1987). Factors associated with detrimental effects of rhizobacteria on plant growth. Plant and Soil, 102, 3-9.
    6. Azcón-Aguilar, C. & Barea, JM. (1996). Arbuscular mycorrhizas and biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens-an overview of the mechanisms involved. Mycorrhiza, 6, 457-464.
    7. Balali, GR. & Kowsari, M. (2004). Pecticzymogram variation and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) isolates in Isfahn, Iran. Mycopathologia, 158, 377-384.
    8. Balali, GR., Neatef, SM. & Scott, DL. (1995). Anastomosis group and pathogenicity of isolates of Rhizoctonia. Plant Pathology, 44, 1050-1057.
    9. Bilgi, VN., Bradley, CA., Khot, SD., Grafton, KF. & Rasmussen, JB. (2008). Response of dry bean genotypes to Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, under field and controlled conditions. Plant Disease, 92, 1197-1200.
    10. Castric, KF. & Castric, P. (1983). Method for rapid detection of cyanogenic bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 45, 701-702.
    11. Datnoff, LE. & Sinclair, JB. (1988). The interaction of Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani in causing root rot of soybeans. Phytopathology, 78, 771-777.
    12. Fahy, PC. & Hayward, AC. (1983). Media and Methods for isolation and diagnostic test. In Plant bacterial diseases a diagnostic guide (Eds.). Academic Press Sydney Publishing.
    13. Fawcett, HS. (1931). The importance of investigations on the effects of known mixtures of organisms. Phytopathology, 21, 545-548.
    14. Hagedorn, C., Gould, WD. & Bradinelli, RT. (1989). Rhizobacteria of cotton and their repression of seedling disease pathogens. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 55, 2793-2797.
    15. Hartman, GL., Huang, YH., Nelson, RL. & Noel, GR. (1997). Germplasm evaluation of Glycine max for resistance to Fusarium solani, the causal organism of sudden death syndrome. Plant Disease, 81, 515-518.
    16. Jayaraman, J., Parthasarathi, T. & Radhakrishnan, NV. (2007). Characterization of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain from tomato rhizosphere and its use for integrated management of tomato damping-off. Biocontrol, 52, 683-702.
    17. Kim, DS., Cook, RJ. & Weller, DM. (1997). Bacillus sp. L324-92 for biological control of three root diseases of wheat grown with reduced tillage. Phytopathology, 87, 551-558.
    18. Little, TM. & Hills, FJ. (1978). Agricultural experimentation: design and analysi ( pp. 368). John Wiley and Sons Publishing, New York.
    19. Nakkeeran, S., Renukadevi, P. & Marimuthu, T. (2005). Antagonistic potentiality of Trichoderma viride and assessment of its efficacy for the management of cotton root rot. Archıves of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 38, 209-225.
    20. Naseri, B. (2008). Root rot of common bean in Zanjan, Iran: major pathogens and yield loss estimates. Australasian Plant Pathology, 37, 546-551.
    21. Pieczarka, DJ. & Abawi, GS. (1978). Effect of interaction between Fusarium, Pythium and Rhizoctonia on severity of bean root rot. Phytopathology, 68, 403-408.
    22. Schaad, NW., Jones, JB. & Chun, W. (2001). Laboratory guid for identification of plant pathogenic bacteria. (3rd ed.). St. Paul, MN, APS Press Publishing.
    23. Scher, FM., Zeigle, JS. & Kloepper, JW. (1983). A method for assaying the root colonizing capacity of bacteria on maize. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 69, 686-690.
    24. Sunish Kumar, R., Ayyadurai, N., Pandiaraja, P., Reddy, AV., Venkateswarlu, Y., Prakash, O. & Sakthive, N. (2005). Characterization of antifungal metabolite produced by a new strain Pseudomonas aeroginosa PUPa3 that exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity and biofertilizing traits. Journal of Microbiology, 98, 145-154.
    25. Wang, H., Hwang, SF., Chang, KF., Turnbull, GD. & Howard, RJ. (2003). Suppression of important pea diseases by bacterial antagonists. Biocontrol, 48, 447-460.
    26. Weller, DM. (1988). Biological control of soilborne plant pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 26, 379-407.
    27. Weller, DM. & Cook, RJ. (1983). Suppression of take‑all of wheat by seed treatments with fluorescent Pseudomonads. Phytopathology, 73, 463‑469.
    28. Xu, GW. & Gross, DC. (1986). Field evaluation of the interactions among Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia carotovora and potato. Phytopathology, 76, 423-430.