Investigation on pathogenicity of Dilophospora alopecuri, cause of twist disease of wheat, in interaction with seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of crop Sciences. Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Sari. Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of crop Sciences., Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University

3 Department of Plant Protection, ّ Faculty of crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Sari. Iran.

4 Plant Protection Research Department, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center. Gorgan. Iran

5 Department of Plant Protection. Faculty of Natural Resources, College of Agricultural Science & Engineering, University of Tehran. Karaj. Iran


Twist disease of wheat caused by Dilophospora alopecuri is one of the diseases that is observed along with wheat seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici) in Golestan province. In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the fungus, an experiment was performed in two cases including inoculation of the fungus alone, D. alopecuri and the nematode together and nematode alone on 4 cultivars of wheat known as Ehsan, Kouhdasht, Morvarid and Line 17 under greenhouse condition. Traits such as decrease of dry weight of infected plant, decrease of plant height, number of fungus-infected plants, number of spike infected by the fungus, number of nematode-infected plants, total weight of nematode galls, number of nematode galls and average galls weight per plant were measured in different cultivars. The analysis was performed using SAS software, and the comparison of the means was achieved by the LSD test. The results of analysis of variance showed that the interaction between D. alopecuri and wheat cultivars and the effect of the fungus on the measured indices in wheat cultivars was significant. The results showed that D. alopecuri can cause disease on wheat only in the presence of A. tritici and the presence of nematode is necessary for fungal pathogenicity and its distribution in the wheat spike.


  1. Asad, S. A., Sultan, S., Iftikhar, A., Mumir, I. A. & Ayub, N. (2007). First report of Dilophospora leaf spot (Twist) disease of wheat in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39 (4), 1387-1389.
  2. Bamdadian, A. (1973). The importance and situation of wheat diseases in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9, 57-63. (In Farsi)
  3. Barbetti, M. J. & Riley, I. T. (2006). Field application of Dilophospora alopecuri to manage annual rye grass toxicity caused by Rathayibacter toxicus. Plant Disease, 90, 229-232.
  4. Chen, Z. X., Chen, S. Y. & Dickson, D. W. (2004). Nematode morphology, physiology and ecology. University of Florida. CABI Publishing, 636 pp.
  5. Khan, M. R. & Athar, M. (1996). Response of wheat cultivars to different inoculum levels on Anguina tritici. Nematologia meditrranea, 24: 269- 272.
  6. Ldawi, A. B., Jawad, A., Shally, R., Darweash, A. K, Lib, A., Nimer S. M. & Ffy, A. S. (1988). A preliminary study on the role of the fungus Dilophospora alopecuri and the nematode Anguina tritici in the development of the twist of cereals disease in Iraq. Arab Journal plant protection, 6, 7-12.
  7. Al-Taae, A. K., Altalyb, N. Y. & Nimer, S. M. (1989). New record of barley leaf and spike twist disease caused by Dilophospora alopecuri (Fr.) in Iraq. Arab Journal plant protection, 7(1), 67-68. (In Arabic).
  8. Macek, J. & Koncan, D. (1988). Artificial inoculation of wheat Triticum aestivum with Dilophospora alopecuri and the sensitivity resistance of some wheat cultivars. Zastia Bilja, 39(2), 211-216.
  9. Mc Kay, A. C., Fisher, J. M. & Dube, J. (1981). Ecological fields studies on Anguina funesta the vector in annual ryegrass toxicity. Australian Journal Agriculture Research, 32, 917-926.
  10. Mohamedova, M. & Pipeerkova, N. (2013). Seed gall nematode Anguina tritici in Bulgaria; Nematode impact on wheat growth and grain yield. AgroLife Scientific Journal, 2 (2), 15-19.
  11. Riley, I. & McKay, A. (1990). Specificity of the adhesion of some plant pathogenic micro-organisms to the cuticle of nematodes in the genus Anguina (Nematoda: Anguinidae). Nematologica, 36(1), 90-103.
  12. Riley, I. T., Reardon, T. B. & Bertozzi, T. (1998). Allozyme analysis of Australian isolates of Dilophospora alopecuri. Mycological Research, 102(3), 301-307.
  13. Sahebani, N., Kheiri, A., Rahimian, H. & Sharifi Tehrani, A. (2007). Effect of Rathayibacter tritici on Movement of Anguina tritici Larvae and Nematode Function as Vector of Ear Rot Bacterium. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 10(4), 357-364. (In Farsi).
  14. Vu, D., Groenewald, M., de Viies, M., Gehrmann, T., Stielow, B., Eberhardet, U., AL-Hatmi, A., Groenewald, J. Z., Cardinali, G., Houbraken, J., Boekhou, T., Crous, P. W, Robert, V. & Verkley, G. J. M. (2019). Large-scale generation and analysis of filamentous fungal DNA barcodes boosts coverage for kingdom fungi and reveals thresholds for fungal species and higher taxon delimitation. Studies in Mycology, 92, 1–20.
  15. Walker, J. & Sutton, B. C. (1974). Dilophia Sacc. And Dilophospora Desm. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 62(2), 231-241.
  16. Yan, G. & Riley, I. T. (2003). Fermentation period, moisture content, and substrate effects on inoculum effectiveness of Dilophospora alopecuri: a biocontrol agent of annual ryegrass toxicity. Biological Control, 26, 174–179.

هیچ‌گونه تعارض منافع توسط نویسندگان وجود ندارد.