Population fluctuations and spatial distribution of the canola false chinch bug, Nysius cymoides (Hem., Lygaeidae) in Kermanshah

Document Type : Research Paper


1 1. Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Razi University

2 1- Ph.D. Graduated and Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Plant Protection Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, IRAN


The false chinch bugs, Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hem., Lygaeidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan distributed and it causes damage as the most important pest in canola fields in Kermanshah province in the recent years. In the present study, population fluctuations and spatial distribution of the pest were investigated in canola fields of Kermanshah province during 2020 and 2021 years. The results of this study showed that the first group of the false chinch bugs populations in 2020 and 2021 were observed on the 8 and 11th of April, respectively.The second population peak of the pest in 2020 and 2021 with an average of 372.22 ± 66.31 and 126.45 ± 4.58 was obtained on 22 and 19th June, respectively. The highest population density of nymphs in 2020 and 2021 with an average of 1263.50 ± 125.19 and 206.00 ± 3.91 was obtained on 23th June. The results of spatial distribution showed that in 2020, the spatial distribution of males, females and adults of the N. cymoides was recognized as aggregated based on Taylor’s power law method and as random based on Iwao’s patchiness regression method. In general, the results of this study showed that N. cymoides had two population peaks. Also, based on goodness of fit, the Iwao’s patchiness method was more suitable than the Taylor’s power law method for estimating the spatial distribution of the pest.


  1. Ahmadi, K., Ebadzadeh, H. R., Hoseinpour, R., Hatami, F., Abdshah, H. B., & Kazemian, A. (2019). Agricultural statistics (Vol. I: crops): Ministry of Jihade-Agriculture. 169 pp. (In Farsi).
  2. Allsopp, P. G. (1988). Spatial distribution and sequential sampling of Nysius (Hem.: Lygaeidae) on sunflowers. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 28, 279-282.
  3. Amini-Khalaf-Badam, M. A., Mohaghegh-Neyshabouri, J., & Ostovan, H. (2006). Biology of the seed bug Nysius cymoides (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) in Mazandaran canola fields. 17th Iranian Plant Protection Congress. 2-5 Sep., Karaj. Iran. Pages 247. (In Farsi).
  4. Behdad, E. (2002). Introductory entomology and important plant pests in Iran: Yadboud Press. 848 pp. (In Farsi).
  5. Boeve, P. J., & Weiss, M. (1998). Spatial distribution and sampling plans with fixed levels of precision for cereal aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) infesting spring wheat. The Canadian Entomologist, 130, 67-77.
  6. Dent, D. (2000). Integrated Pest Management: Chapman & Hall. London. 365 pp.
  7. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations). (2013). FAOSTAT, Agricultural Production. Availableon : http :// faostat3. fao. org/ home/ index.html [Accessed: December 28, 2013].
  8. Funderburk, J. E., & Mack, T. P. (1987). Abundance and dispersion of Geocoris (Hem.: Lygaeidae) in Albama and Florida soybean fields. The Florida Entomologist, 70(40), 432-439.
  9. Ghauri, M. S. K. (1977). A revision of Apodiphus spinola (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 67, 97-106.
  10. Haack, R. A. (2004). Orthotomicus erosus: A new pine-infesting bark beetle in the United States. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society, 49(3 & 4), p.3.
  11. Heidary-Alizadeh, B., Avand-Faghih, A., Mohaghegh-Neyshabouri, J., & Porshekoh, A. Y. (2009). Ethyl 4-isothiocyanatobutyrate as a potential attractant for Nysius cymoides (Het.: Lygaeidae). Journal of Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 76(2), 1 - 10.
  12. IBM Corp. (2015). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Version 23.0. IBM Corp, Armonk, NY: IBM Crop.
  13. Keyhanian, A. A., Taghizadeh, M., Taghaddosi, M. V., & Khajehzadeh, Y. (2005). A faunistic study on insect pests and its natural enemies in canola fields at different regions of Iran. Pajouhesh –Va- Sazandegi, 68, 2 - 8. (In Farsi).
  14. Majeau, G., Brodeur, J., & Carriere, Y. (2000). Lawn parameters influencing Abundance and distribution of the hairy Chinch bug (Hem.: Lygaeidae ). Journal of Economic Entomology, 93(2), 368 - 373.
  15. Mirab-balou, M., Rasoulian, G. R., Khanjani, M., & Sabahi, Q. (2008). Study on taxonomy of phytophagous bugs of the family Miridae and introducing insects natural enemies of the alfalfa tarnished plant bug in Hamedan alfalfa farms (west of Iran). Journal of Pakistan Entomology, 30, 55 - 60.
  16. Mohaghegh-Neyshabouri, J. (2009). Demography of Nysius cymoides (Het.: Lygaeidae) fed on canola seeds under laboratory conditions. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 76(2), 67 - 80. (In Farsi).
  17. Mohaghegh-Neyshabouri, J., Amir-Maafi, M., Shahrokhi- Khanghah, S., & Pirhadi, A. (2016). Spatial distribution of the canola false chinch bug, Nysius cymoides (Hem.: Lygaeidae). Plant Pest Research, 5(4), 13 - 23. (In Farsi).
  18. Mohaghegh-Neyshabouri, J., Pirhadi, A., & Amini-Khalaf-Badam, M. A. (2019). Management of the canola false chinch bug, Nysius cymoides: Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection. 11 Page. (In Farsi).
  19. Mollashahi, M., Sahragard, A., Mohaghegh-Neyshabouri, J., Hosseini, R., & Sabouri, H. (2017). Two-sex life table of Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hem.: Lygaeidae) at different photoperiods under laboratory conditions. Plant Pest Research, 6(4), 73 - 87. (In Farsi).
  20. Pedigo, L. P., & Buntin, G. D. (1993). Handbook of Sampling Methods for Arthropods in Agriculture: CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 714 pp.
  21. Pericart, J. (1999). Super family Lygaeoidea Schilling. In: Aukema B., Rieger C. (eds) Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palaearctic Region. Amsterdam: Entomological Society Press.
  22. Raymer, P. L. (2002). Canola: an emerging oilseed crop. p. 122–126. In: “Trends in New Crops and New Uses” (J. Janick, A. Whipkey, eds.): ASHS Press, Alexandria, USA, 599 pp.
  23. Scaccini, D., & Furlan, L. (2019). Nysius cymoides (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), a potential emerging pest: overview of the information available to implement integrated pest management. International Journal of Pest Management, 1 - 16.
  24. Scarisbrick, D. H., & Daniels, R. W. (1986). Oilseed Rape: Collins Professional and Technical Books, London, 309 pp.
  25. Solhjouy-Fard, S., Sarafrazi, F., Minbashi-Moeini, M., & Ahadiyat, A. (2013). Predicting habitat distribution of five heteropteran pest species in Iran. Journal of Insect Science, 13, 116. Available online: www.insectscience.org/113.116.
  26. Southwood, T. R. E., & Henderson, P. A. (2000). Ecological Methods: Third edition. Blackwell Science, UK. 557 pp.
  27. Souza, L. A., Barbosa, J. C., Grigolli, J. F. J., Fraga, D. F., Maldonado, W., & Busoli, A. C. (2013). Spatial distribution of Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in soybean. Neotropical Entomology, 42, 412 - 418.
  28. Sweet, M. H. (2000). Seed and chinch bugs (Lygaeoidea): In: Schaeferm, C. W. and Panizzi, A. R. (eds.), Heteroptera of economic importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 143-264.
  29. Taylor, L. R. (1984). Assessing and interpreting the spatial distribution of insect population. Annual Review of Entomology, 29, 321 - 358.
  30. Tsai, G. H., Wang, J. J., & Lio, Y. H. (2000). Sampling of Diaphorina citri (Hom.: psylidae) on orange jassamie in southern Florida. Journal of Florida Entomologist, 83(4), 446 - 459.
  31. Vargas, L. E. (2007). Damage assessment and sampling of the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in rice, Oryza sativa , in Texas. Ph.D. thesis. Texas A and M University.
  32. Yasunaga, T. (1990). A revision of the genus Adelphocoris Reuter (Heterptera, Miridae) from Japan. Japan Journal Entomology, 58, 606 - 618.