c3518cb17d976b8

بررسی تغییرات بیوشیمیایی و آنزیمی فرمولاسیون نانوامولسیون برخی ‌اسانس‌ها و یک عصاره گیاهی ‏در سفیدبالک پنبهBemisia tabaci (Gennadius) ‎‏ ‏

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس دانشگاهی، دانشگاه گیلان

2 پژوهشگر مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی باریج کاشان

3 دانشیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

4 پژوهشگر، مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی باریج کاشان

5 استاد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

6 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

برخی اسانس‌ها و عصاره‌های گیاهی دارای خواص حشره­کشی مطلوبی علیه سفیدبالک پنبه می‌باشند. در این مطالعه سمیت اسانس­های رزماری، نعناع فلفلی، اکالیپتوس و عصاره آویشن باغی فرموله‌شده به­صورت جداگانه در تویین80 و به شکل نانوامولسیون روی پوره­های سن دو سفیدبالک پنبه بررسی گردید. آزمون­های زیست‌سنجی به­روش غوطه‌ورسازی برگ­های حاوی پوره سن دو انجام و مقادیر LC50 تخمین زده شد. مقادیر LC50  اسانس­های رزماری، نعناع فلفلی، اکالیپتوس و عصاره آویشن باغی در تویین80 به ترتیب 4198، 3925، 4312، 9626 و میزان LC50­­  نانوامولسیون اینترکیبات به­ترتیب 2759، 2987، 3189، 5659 میلی‌لیتر بر لیتر به­دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که نانوامولسیون اسانس‌های رزماری و نعناع فلفلی بیشترین سمیت را روی پوره­های مذکور دارند. همچنین در این تحقیق اثرات مخلوط اسانس­ها و عصاره گیاهی فرموله‌شده روی برخی تغییرات بیوشیمیایی و آنزیمی سفیدبالک پنبه در حشرات تیمارشده با غلظت LC50 تیمار T1 (امولسیون ترکیب‌شده از سه اسانس­ و عصاره فوق)، تیمار T2 (امولسیون بر پایه عصاره آویشن باغی) و تیمار T3 (امولسیون ترکیب‌شده از سه اسانس فوق­) اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که فعالیت آنزیم‌های استرازی و گلوتاتیون‌اس- ترانسفرازی تحت تأثیر تیمارهای T1، T2 وT3  افزایش یافت؛ درصورتی­که میزان فعالیت آنزیم‌ استیل‌کولین‌استراز تغییر معنی‌داری را نشان نداد. میزان ذخایر انرژی (چربی، کربوهیدرات و پروتئین کل) در تیمار T1 وT3  نسبت به تیمار T2 و شاهد، کاهش معنی‌داری داشتند؛ هرچند که میزان گلیکوژن کل تغییر معنی‌داری را بین تیمارها و شاهد نشان نداد. بنابراین تیمارهای T1  و T3، با القای سم‌زدایی در برخی از آنزیم‌های سم‌زدا و کاهش بعضی از ذخایر انرژی، اثر بیشتری را روی پارامترهای بیوشیمیایی پوره‌های سن دو سفیدبالک پنبه نشان می‌دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of biochemical and enzymatic changes induced by emulsion and ‎nanoemulsion formulations of some essential oils and an herbal extract on Bemisia ‎tabaci (Gennadius)‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Bolandnazar 1 2
  • Mohammad Ghadamyari 3
  • Mohammadreza Memarzadeh 4
  • Jalal Jalali Sandi 5
  • Maryam Zolfaghari 6
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran | Researcher, ‎University Campus and Barij Medicinal Plants Research Centre, Kashan, Iran‎
2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran | Researcher, ‎University Campus and Barij Medicinal Plants Research Centre, Kashan, Iran‎
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of ‎Guilan, Iran‎
4 Researcher, Barij Medicinal Plants Research Centre, Kashan, Iran‎
5 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran‎
6 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran‎
چکیده [English]

Some essential oils and plant extracts have shown suitable insecticidal properties against the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. In this study, essential oils of rosemary, peppermint and eucalyptus and extract of thyme were formulated separately in Tween 80 as well as formulated in the form of nanoemulsion and bioassyed against 2nd instar nymphs of B. tabaci. The bioassay tests were done by leaf dip method on the leaves containing 2nd instar nymphs and LC50swere determined. The LC50 of rosemary, peppermint, eucalyptus essential oils and thyme extractprepared in Tween 80 were estimated as 4198, 3925, 4312 and 9626 mL/L and LC50 of nanoemulsion of above itemswere estimated as 2759, 2987, 3189 and 5659 mL/L, respectively. The results showed that nanoemulsion of rosemary and peppermint essential oils have the highest toxicity on the 2nd instar nymphs of B. tabaci. Also, effects of combination of essential oils and extract formulation on biochemical and enzymatic changeswere investigated with LC50 of T1 (emulsified from essential oils and the extract), T2 (extract emulsion) and T3 (emulsification of essential oils). The amount of activities of esterases and glutathione s-transferases were increased in T1, T2 and T3 treatments; while, the cholinesterase activity was not affected. The amount of energy reserves (total lipid, carbohydrate and protein) decreased significantly in T1 and T3 treatments; although the amount of total glycogen was not affected significantly by treatments. Therefore, T1 and T3 treatments showed a greater effect on the biochemical parameters, by induction of detoxification of some enzymes and reducing some of the energy reserves, in 2nd instar nymphs of sweet potato whitefly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Botanical insecticide
  • Biochemical parameters
  • Essential oil
  • Nanoemulsion
  • sweet potato whitefly
Agrawal, A., Pandey, R. S. & Sharma, B. (2011). Water pollution with special reference to pesticide contamination in India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2(5), 432-448.
Amorim, M. J. B., Gomes, S. I. L., Soares, A. M. V. M. & Scott-Fordsmand, J. J. (2012). Energy basal levels and allocation among lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates in Enchytraeus albidus: changes related to exposure to Cu salt and Cu nanoparticles. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223, 477-482.
Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database. (2016). avail; able at: http://www.pesticideresistance.org/. Retrieved 2018 June 10.
Ashtari, S., Poormirza, A. & Safaralizadeh, M. (2011). Investigation of susceptibility to various stages of life Bemisia tabaci agaist pyriproxyfen and sytovet oil. Journal of Entomology Research, 3(4), 267-276. (in Farsi)
Aziziyan, N., Sarrafmoayyeri, H. & Bolandnazar, A. (2014). Effect of contact formulations prepared of plant extracts and essential oils on two-spotted spider mites. Journal of Plant Protection (Agricultural Sciences and Technology). 28, Number 3. 393-399. (in Farsi)
Bolandnazar, A., Ghadamyari, M., Memarzadeh M. & Jalali Sandi, J. (2017). Effect of some micro and nanoemulsified essential oils and plant extract on sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), under laboratory condition. Plant Pest Research, 7(3), 23-37. (in Farsi)
Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254.
Choi, W. I., Lee, E. H., Choi, B. R., Parkand, H. M. & Ahn, Y. J. (2003). Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(5), 1479-1484.
De Coen, W. & Janssen, C. R. (1997). The use of biomarkers in Daphnia magna toxicity esting. IV. Cellular energy allocation: a new methodology to assess the energy budget of toxicant-stressed Daphnia populations. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery, 6, 43-55.
Ellman, G. L., Courtney, K. D., Andres, V. Jr. & Featherstone, R. M. (1961), A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochemical Pharmacology, 7, 88-95.
Gutierrez, J. M., González, C., Maestro, A. & Nolla, J. (2008). Current Opinions in Colloid & Interface Science, 13, 245-251.
Habig, W. H., Pabst, M. J. & Jakoby, W. B. (1974). Glutathione S-transferases the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249(22), 7130-7139.
Hayes, J. D. & Pulford, D. J. (1995). The glutathione S-transferase supergene family: regulation of GST and the contribution of the isoenzymes to cancer chemoprotection and drug resistance. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 30, 445-600.
Horowitz, A. R., Kontsedalov, S. & Ishaaya, I. (2004). Dynamics of resistance to the neonicotinoids actamiprid and thiamethoxam in Bemisia tabaci. Insecticides Resistance and Resistance Management, 97(6), 2051-2056.
Isman, M. B. (2000). Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Protection. 19. 603-608.
Isman, M. B. (2006). Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world, Annual Review of Entomology, 51, 45-66.
Kostyukovsky, M., Rafaeli, A., Gileadi, C., Demchenko, N. & Shaaya, E. (2002). Activation of octopaminergic receptors by essential oil constituents isolated from aromatic plants: Possible mode of action against insect pests. Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 58, 1101-1106.
McClements D. J. (2012). Nanoemulsions versus microemulsions: terminology, differences, and similarities. Soft Matter, 8, 1719-1729.
Moretti, M. D. L., Sanna-Passino, G., Demontis, S. & Bazzoni, E. (2002). Essential Oil Formulations Useful as a New Tool for Insect Pest Control. AAPS PharmSciTech. 3 (2) article 13.
Miranda, J. E., Bortoli, S. A., Takahashi, R. & Silva, A. F. (2003). Nutritional indexes of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) treated with juvenile hormone analogues. Revista Cientifica Rural, 8, 32-38.
Mirmajidi, A. & abbasi, S. (2013). Nanoemulsions; introduction, production, Application. Nanotechnology monthly. The 10th year. 8. 45-49.
Nasr, M., Jalali Sendi, J., Moharramipour, S. & Zibaee, A. (2014). Efficacy of essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on mortality and physiological parameters of diamondback moth, Plutella xylustella (Lep.: Pyralidae). Plant Pest Research, 7(3), 23-37. (in Farsi)
Negahban, M., Moharramipour, S., Zandi, M. & Hashemi, S. A. (2013). Nanocapsulated essential oil efficiency of Artemisia (Artemisia sieberi Besser) on nutritional indices Plutella xylostella. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 29(3), 692-708.
Nollet Leo, M. L. & Rathore, H. S. (2017). Green Pesticides Handbook Essential Oils for Pest Control. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. 570 pp.
Novais, S. C., Amadeu, M. V. M. S., De Coen, W. & Amorim, M. J. B. (2013). Exposure of Enchytraeus albidus to Cd and Zn-changes in cellular energy allocation (CEA) and linkage to transcriptional, enzymatic and reproductive effects. Chemosphere, 90, 1305-1309.
Oliveira, M. R. V., Henneberryb, T. J. & Andersonc, P. (2001). History, current status, and collaborative research projects for Bemisia tabaci. Crop Protection, 20, 709-723.
Ryan, M. F. & Byrne, O. (1988). Plant-insect coevolution and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 14(10), 1965-1975.
Riazi, M., Khajeali, J., Poorjavad, N. & bolandnazar, A. (2015). Mortality and repellency effect of formulation of mint essential oil on Aphis gossypii in greenhouse conditions. Science and technology greenhouse. Sixth year. 169- 179. (in Farsi)
Robertson, J. L., Russell, R. M., Preisler, H. K. & Savin, N. E. (2007). Bioassays with arthropods. CRC, Boca Raton, FL. p.199.
Sarraf moayyeri, H., Pirayeshfar, F. & Bolandnazar, A. (2015). The effect of acaricidal of formulated extracts and essential oils of Melia azadirachta on two-spotted spider mites. Bimonthly Journal of Medicinal Plant. 211-219.
Tripathi, A. K., Upadhyay, S., Bhuiyan, M. & Bhattacharya, P. R. (2009). A review on prospects of essential oils as biopesticide in insect-pest management. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 15, 52-61.
Van Asperen, K. (1962). A study of housefly esterases by means of a sensitive colorimetric method. Journal of Insect Physiology, 8, 401-416.
Yazdani, E., Jalali Sendi, J. & Hajizadeh, J. (2014). Effect of Thymus vulgaris L. and Origanum vulgare L. essential oils on toxicity, food consumption, and biochemical properties of lesser mulberry pyralid Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Plant Protection Research. 54.1.
Yuval, B., Kaspi, R. O. Y., Shloush, S. & Warburg, M. S. (1998). Nutritional reserves regulate male participation in Mediterranean fruit fly leks. Ecological Entomology, 23(2), 211-215.
Zare. Z. Divsalar, A. & Nabyoni, M. (2011). A review of Nanoemulsions and medical applications. Magazine Nanotechnology Monthly, 9, 30-33. (in Farsi)
Ziaee, M. & Hamzevy, F. (2014). Nanoparticles applications in the pest prevention and control. Nanotechnology. Monthly13th year. 10. 207. (In Farsi)
Zibaee, A. & Bandani A. R. (2010). Effects of Artemisia annua L. (Asteracea) on the digestive enzymatic profiles and the cellular immune reactions of the sun pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutellaridae), against Beauvaria bassiana. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 100(2), 185-196.