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مقایسه مورفومتریک زنبورعسل نژاد بومی (‏Apis mellifera meda‏) و هیبرید کارنیکا‏ ‏(‏Apis mellifera carnica‏) در استان همدان‏

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حشره‌شناسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 دانشیار، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 استاد پژوهشی بخش زنبور عسل، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم دامی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 استاد، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

زنبورعسل از مهمترین حشرات گرده­افشان و تولیدکننده است که ارزش اقتصادی و زیست‌محیطی بالایی دارد. هیبرید و زیرگونه‌های مختلفی برای این حشره در نقاط مختلف دنیا با توجه به اقلیم معرفی شده است. در ایران نیز نژاد بومی سال‌ها وجود داشته و با شرایط کشور هماهنگ شده ولی در سال‌های اخیر با ورود ملکه‌های غیربومی به کشور، اختلاط نژادی در زنبورعسل ایرانی نیز مشاهده گردیده است. در این پژوهش مقایسه‌ای بین نژاد بومی و هیبرید کارنیکا با پایه مادری بومی و پایه پدری کارنیکا که از معروف‌ترین زیرگونه‌های مورد علاقه زنبورداران ایران و اکثر نقاط دنیا می‌باشد، صورت گرفته است. به این منظور از 5 کلنی بومی از زنبورستانی با جمعیت کاملاً بومی و 5 کلنی هیبرید کارنیکا از مرکز تلقیح مصنوعی و پرورش ملکه کارنیکا در استان همدان نمونه‌برداری شد. جمعا 50 نمونه زنبور بومی و 50 هیبرید کارنیکا در الکل 96 درصد نگهداری شده و از آنها اسلاید تهیه شد. صفات طول و عرض بال جلو و عقب، شاخص کوبیتال، سه زاوبه A4، D7 و G18 در بال جلو و طول خرطوم توسط بینوکولر و دوربین Dino Lite عکس گرفته و با نرم‌افزار Digimizer مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. مقایسه میانگین داده‌های نژاد بومی و هیبرید کارنیکا اختلاف معنی‌دار بین دو زاویه A4 و G18 و صفات طول خرطوم و عرض بال جلو و عقب را نشان داد (005/0P<). در سایر صفات اختلاف معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد که علت این امر را می‌توان به هیبرید بودن کارنیکا و غلبه ژن‌های پایه مادری نژاد بومی در آن، زمان نمونه‌برداری از حیث غالب بودن تعداد زنبوران پرستار در کندو و تغیرات مورفولوژیکی در نژاد بومی اشاره کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison between natives honey bee (Apis mellifera meda) and Carniolan hybrid ‎races (Apis mellifera carnica) in Hamedan province‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahram Dadgostar 1
  • Sahar Delkash Roudsari 1
  • Jamasb Nozari 2
  • Gholamhossein Tahmasbi 3
  • Vahid Hosseini Naveh 4
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Entomology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of ‎Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Professor of Bee Section, Institute of Animal Science Research, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, ‎Karaj, Iran ‎
4 Professor, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Honey bee is one of the most important pollinator and producer insects that have a high economic and environmental value. Different hybrids and subtypes for this insect have been introduced around the world with respect to the climate. One of the races is Apis mellifera meda with some characters. Unfortunately, in the recent years with importing honey bees from foreign countries, this race became impure. In this study we compare somecharactersof native honey bee races with Carniolan hybrid in Hamedan province that is the famous area for queen rearing. For this purpose 3 angels in forewing including A4, D7 and G18, length and width of fore and hind wings and proboscis length were evaluated in 50 individuals from each population (n= 50 for native and n= 50 for hybrid honey bees). Dinocapture and Digimizer software data were used to calculate. The results of the research showed that two angles and widths of fore and hind wing and proboscis length have significant differences but other characters didn't have any difference. These differences in two races may be due to methods of evaluating, differences in gene pools and problems importing queen.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apis mellifera meda
  • Apis mellifera carnica
  • cubital index
  • honey bee
  • proboscis
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