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تأثیر میکوریزهای آربوسکولارGlomus intraradices ‎‏ و ‏Glomus mosseae‏ بر پوسیدگی ‏فیتوفتورایی ریشه پسته در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان ‏

2 دانشیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان ‏

3 استادیار پژوهشی، پژوهشکده پسته، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رفسنجان ‏

4 استاد، گروه ژنتیک و تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان ‏

چکیده

تأثیر دو گونه Glomus intraradices و G. mosseae (Gm+Gi) از قارچ‌های میکوریز آربوسکولار (AMF) بر پوسیدگی ریشه نهال‌های پسته ناشی از Phytophthora drechsleri (Pd) در دو سطح شوری 1400 و 3200 میلی­گرم NaCl در گرم خاک بررسی شد. نهال‌های دوماهه پسته بادامی زرند با 200 پروپاگول در گرم از Gm+Gi مایه‌زنی شد و پس از 50 روز، غلظت‌های مختلف کلرید سدیم  طی 15 روز به گلدان‌ها اضافه گردید. پس از دو هفته، مایه‌زنی نهال‌ها با استفاده از مایه P. drechsleriانجام گردید. نتایج نشان داد که مایه‌زنی AMF موجب افزایش معنی‌دار وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه، سطح برگ، ارتفاع نهال، غلظت کلروفیل و قندهای محلول در شرایط شور و غیر شور گردید اما غلظت پرولین و یون‌های Na و Cl در اندام هوایی و ریشه نهال‌های میکوریزی کاهش نشان داد. مایه‌زنی Pd نتوانست تأثیر معنی‌داری بر درصد کلنیزاسیون AMF در ریشه بگذارد اما در ریشه‌های کلنیزه‌شده با AMF درصد کلنیزاسیون بیمارگر در کلیه سطوح شوری به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. در تیمار برهمکنش AMF و Pd، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه، سطح برگ و ارتفاع نهال‌ها، غلظت کلروفیل، قندهای محلول به‌طور معنی‌داری در مقایسه با تیمار مایه‌زنی با Pd در کلیه سطوح کلرید سدیم افزایش نشان داد اما غلظت یون‌های Na و Cl اندام هوایی و ریشه به‌طور معنی‌داری کمتر بود. بنابراین کلنیزاسیون AMF می­تواند از اثرات مخرب شوری و پوسیدگی فیتوفتورایی ریشه پسته بکاهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae on ‎pistachio root rot caused by Phytophthora under salinity stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeinab Behmanesh 1
  • Hossein Alaei 2
  • Amir Hossein Mohammadi 3
  • Hossein Dashti 4
1 Former M. Sc. Student , Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of ‎Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran ‎
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran ‎
3 Assistant Professor, Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension ‎Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran ‎
4 Professor, Department of Genetics and Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, ‎Iran
چکیده [English]

The effect of Glomus intraradices and G. mosseae (Gm+Gi) as Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated on Phytophthora root rot of pistachio seedlings caused by Phytophthora drechsleri (Pd) in salinity level of 1400 and 3200 mg NaCl per gram of soil. Two month old pistachio seedlings cultivar Badami-Zarand were inoculated by 200 propagules gr-1 of Gm+Gi mycorrhizae and after 50 days, salinity treatments with different concentration of NaCl were added to seedling pots through irrigation during 15 days. After two weeks, seedling roots were inoculated by P. drechsleri. The results showed that seedlings inoculation by mycorrhizae, significantly increased the shoot and root dry weight, leaf area, seedling height, chlorophyll and soluble sugars concentration in all salinity levels as well as non-saline treatments. But proline concentration as well as Na and Cl ions were reduced in shoot and root of mycorrhizal seedlings. P. drechsleri inoculation could have no significant effects on root colonization by AMF whereas in myorrhizal seedlings, the colonization of pathogen was significantly decreased in all salinity treatments. The results of the interaction treatment of AM fungi and P. drechsleri showed that the shoot and root dry weight, leaf area, seedling height, chlorophyll and soluble sugars concentration were significantly increased in all salinity levels compared to P. drechsleri inoculated seedlings whereas the concentration of Na and Cl ions in shoot and root was significantly lower. In conclusion, the presence of AM fungicould reduce the destructive effects of salinity and Phytophthora root rot of pistachio.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
  • salinity
  • soil-borne disease
  • Pistachio
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