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بهبود رشد و عملکرد گندم در رقابت با علف‌های هرز در حضور قارچ میکوریز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته علوم علف‌های هرز، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، ‏همدان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 استاد، بخش تحقیقات علف‌های هرز، مؤسسه گیاهپزشکی ایران، سازمان، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر قارچ میکوریز بر روابط رقابتی گندم (Triticum aestivum) با علف­های­هرز، دو آزمایش مستقل به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی، در شرایط گلدانی در سال زراعی 97-1396 در کرج، اجرا شد. در آزمایش اول فاکتورها شامل گندم و شش گونه علف هرز، در دو سطح با و بدون میکوریز و در آزمایش دوم، فاکتورها شامل کشت خالص گندم، یولاف‌وحشی و چاودار و کشت مخلوط گندم با یولاف­وحشی و گندم با چاودار، در دو سطح با و بدون میکوریز بود. در آزمایش اول، پاسخ رشد میکوریزایی کیسه­کشیش (Capsella bursa-pastoris)، خونی­واش (Phalaris minor)، خاکشیرتلخ (Sisymbrium irio)، چچم (Lolium rigidum) و گندم، به­ترتیب معادل 18، 5/19، 23، 38 و 41 درصد و پاسخ رشد میکوریزایی چاودار (Secale cereale) و یولاف­وحشی (Avena ludoviciana) به­ترتیب معادل 28/29- و 40/22- درصد بود. در آزمایش دوم، رقابت چاودار و یولاف­وحشی، در تیمار عدم کاربرد قارچ، وزن خشک گندم را به­ترتیب به میزان 58/41 و 40/51 درصد کاهش داد و در حضور قارچ، وزن خشک گندم در رقابت با چاودار و یولاف­وحشی، به­ترتیب به میزان 10/43 و 11/47 درصد افزایش یافت. عملکرد دانه گندم درکشت خالص و در حضور قارچ میکوریز، معادل 51/5 گرم در بوته بود که در مقایسه با تیمار عدم کاربرد قارچ، افزایش 79/51 درصدی را نشان داد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می­دهد که چنانچه علف­های­هرز غالب در مزارع گندم، غیرمیکوریزایی باشند و یا پاسخ رشد میکوریزایی آن­ها منفی باشد، کاربرد قارچ میکوریز می­تواند خسارت علف­های هرز مذکور را کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement of growth and yield of wheat in competition against the weeds in the ‎presence of mycorrhizal fungus

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Dehghan Banadaki 1
  • Goudarz Ahmadvand 2
  • Eskandar Zand 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Weed Science, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Bu-Ali Sina University, ‎Hamedan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3 Professor of Agronomy, Weed Research branch, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effects of mycorrhizal fungus on competitive relations between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and weeds, two separated factorial experiments based on a completely randomized design were carried out at greenhouse conditions in Karaj, during 2017-2018. The factors of the 1st experiment were wheat and six weed species and two levels of mycorrhiza inoculation (with and without fungus) and that of the 2ndexperiment were pure stand of wheat, wild oat and rye and mixed cropping of wheat with wild oat and wheat with rye, and two levels of mycorrhiza inoculation (with and without fungus). In the 1stexperiment, mycorrhizal growth response of shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris), bunchgrass (Phalaris minor), Londonrocket (Sisymbrium irio), perennial ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) and wheat were 18, 19.5, 23, 38 and 41 percentage, respectively and that of Rey (Secale cereale) and wild oat (Avena ludoviciana) were -29.28 and -22.40 percentage, respectively. In the 2nd experiment Rye and wild oat competition in non-fungus inoculated treatment reduced wheat dry weight by 41.58% and 51.4%, respectively. In the presence of fungus, wheat dry weight in competition with rye and wild oat, increased by 43.10% and 47.11%, respectively. In pure stand of wheat in the presence of fungus, wheat yield was 5.51 g/plant, which increased by 51.79% in comparison with non-application of fungus. The results of this research indicate that if the dominant weeds in the wheat fields, are non-mycorrhizal, or their mycorrhizal growth response is negative, the application of mycorrhizal fungi can reduce the damage of those weeds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Colonization
  • Mycorrhizal fungus
  • Mycorrhizal growth response
  • Rye‎
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