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سازگاری ‏Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) ‎‏ با چند حشره‌کش زیست‌سازگار، و بررسی اثر آنها روی ‏چهار گونه از حشرات آفت و دشمن طبیعی مزارع یونجه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 استاد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

سازگاری قارچBeauveria bassiana (Balsamo)  با هگزافلوموران، کرومافنوزاید، کلرفلوآزوران، فوزالون، عصاره فلفل و عصاره سیر در شرایط آزمایشگاهی بررسی شد. برای این منظور 75، 150، 300 و 500 میکرولیتر از این حشره‌کش‌ها با 100 میلی‌لیتر محیط کشت ذوب شده قارچ B. bassiana مخلوط شده و طی 7، 15، 17 و 19 روز بعد از تیمار، قطر میسلیوم قارچ در تیمارها و شاهد اندازه‌گیری و مقایسه شد. در بخش دوم پژوهش، اثر قارچ B. bassiana، کرومافنوزاید، کلرفلوآزوران، فوزالون، فرم تجاری عصاره سیر و عصاره فلفل، هگزافلوموران، آزادیراکتین و B. bassiana + عصاره سیر روی سرخرطومی برگ یونجه Hypera postica (Gyllenhal)، شته نخودAcyrthosiphon pisum Harris و دو گونه کفشدوزک  Hyppodamia variegata (Goeze)و Coccinella undecimpunctata L. در شرایط مزرعه‌ای آزمایش شد. آزمایش‌ها در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و در چهار تکرار انجام شدند. یک روز قبل از سمپاشی و 1، 3 و 7 روز بعد از سمپاشی، از این حشرات نمونه‌برداری و درصد کارآیی تیمارها با استفاده از فرمول هندرسن- تیلتن محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان دادند از بین حشره‌کش‌های مورد آزمایش، عصاره سیر و عصاره فلفل با قارچ B. bassiana سازگار بوده و می‌توانند همراه با این قارچ در برنامه‌های مدیریت آفات مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. در آزمایش‌های مزرعه‌ای، عصاره فلفل، عصاره سیر، هگزافلوموران و B. bassiana + عصاره سیر تیمارهایی بودند که سه روز بعد از سمپاشی، کارآیی آنها روی لاروهای جوان سرخرطومی یونجه به‌صورت معنی‌داری بیشتر از تیمارهای دیگر بوده که می‌توانند برای کنترل سرخرطومی یونجه مورد توجه قرار گیرد. سه حشره‌کش آزادیراکتین، کرومافنوزاید و هگزافلوموران کارآیی بالای 50درصد روی شته نخود نشان دادند که هگزافلوموران به دلیل امنیت نسبی بالاتر برای هر دو گونه کفشدوزک مورد مطالعه، می‌تواند برای کنترل شته نخود توصیه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) with some biorational insecticides, ‎and their effects on four species of pests and natural enemies in alfalfa fields ‎

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roghaiyeh Karimzadeh 1
  • Fatemeh Kazemi 2
  • Mir Jalil Hejazi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of ‎Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Former M. Sc. Student, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) with hexaflumuron, chromafenozide, chlorfluazuron, phosalone, garlic extract and pepper extract was studied at the laboratory condition. In details, 75, 150, 300 and 500 µl of the insecticides and extracts were incorporated into 100 ml of liquefied potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture medium. Seven, 15, 17 and 19 days after treatment, diameter of the colonies was measured and compared in the treatments and control. In the second part of the study, the effects of B. bassiana, chromafenozide, chlorfluazuron, phosalone, garlic extract, pepper extract, hexaflumuron, azadirachtin and B. bassiana + garlic extract, were determined on alfalfa leaf weevil Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harrisand the two species of coccinellids including Hyppodamia variegata (Goeze) and Coccinella undecimpunctata L. under field conditions. Experiments were conducted using randomized complete block design with four replicates. A sampling was conducted a day before treatments and three samplings were conducted 1, 3 and 7 days after treatments. The Efficacy of treatments was calculated using Henderson-Tilton's formula. The results indicated that garlic and pepper extracts were compatible with B. bassiana and those can be used simultaneously in pest management programs. Three days after treatment, efficiency of garlic and pepper extracts, hexaflumuron and B. bassiana + garlic extract was significantly higher on young larvae of H. postica than other treatments and those can be considered in this pest management programs. Chromafenozide, azadirachtin and hexaflumuron had > 50% efficiency on pea aphid population. Among these insecticides, hexaflumuron may be recommended for pea aphid control due to its relatively low effects on the lady beetles.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Beauveria bassiana
  • Compatibility
  • insect growth regulators
  • garlic extract
  • pepper extract‎
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