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بررسی عوامل باکتریایی دخیل در ایجاد عارضه لکه برگی کیوی در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه ولیعصر(عج)رفسنجان

2 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر (عج) رفسنجان

3 مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی-تهران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی عوامل باکتریایی ایجادکننده‌ی بیماری کله‌برگی کیوی در ایران نمونه‌برداری گسترده‌ای در دو سال متوالی از مناطق کیوی خیز استان‌های شمالی کشور انجام شد. از برگ درختان آلوده با علائم مختلف لکه زاویه‌ای قهوه‌ای‌رنگ، لکه‌ی سفید با حاشیه‌ی قهوه‌ای، لکه‌ نارنجی رنگ و لکه‌ی آبسوخته با هاله‌ی زرد رنگ در اطراف آن، بیش از 400 جدایه باکتریایی جدا و خالص‌سازی‌گردید. پس از انجام آزمون بیماری‌زایی به روش‌های مختلف، 130 جدایه به عنوان بیمارگر شناسایی شد. سپس از میان آن‌ها، بیست‌و‌پنج جدایه مشکوک به جنس Pseudomonas بر اساس ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیکی نظیر رنگ و شکل کلنی انتخاب ‌شده و مورد بررسی‌های فنوتیپی و مولکولی قرارگرفت. تمامی جدایه‌ها در آزمون القای واکنش فوق حساسیت در توتون و شمعدانی نتایج مثبت ولی در سایر آزمون‌های فنوتیپی و بیوشیمیایی نتایجی متفاوت نشان دادند. این نتایج نشان داد، نیمی از جدایه‌های مورد بررسی، بیشترین شباهت را به گونه‌ی P. syringae دارند. همچنین استفاده از دو جفت آغازگر اختصاصی طراحی‌شده بر اساس توالی rRNA (ITS) 16S–23S به نام PsaF1⁄R2 و PsaF3⁄R4، نشان داد که جدایه‌های 20،86،101،138،132،117،194 و 230 به پاتووار P. syringae pv. actinidiae تعلق دارند. بررسی ترادف توالی ژن rpoD در 17 جدایه‌ی دیگر و عدم شباهت آن با هیچ کدام از توالی‌های ژن rpoD، متعلق به گونه‌های موجود از جنس سودوموناس در بانک ژن نشان داد که احتمالاً این جدایه‌ها گونه‌های ناشناخته‌‌‌ای از این جنس بوده که تعیین جایگاه دقیق تاکسونومیکی آن‌ها مستلزم بررسی‌های بیشتر می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of bacterial agent of kiwifruit leaf spot disease in northern Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elahe Vaseghi khoondabi 1
  • Pejman khodaygan 2
  • Farid Beiki Firouzjahi 3
2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan
3 Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the bacterial agents causing kiwifruit leaf spot disease in Iran, sampling performed in two consecutive years from the kiwifruit growing areas in the northern provinces. More than 400 bacterial strains isolated from the leaves of infected trees with various signs of leaf spot like brown angular spot, white spot with brown border, orange color spot and water soaking spot with yellow penumbra. 130 strains identified as pathogenic factors in different pathogenicity test. Among them, 25 strains were suspicious to have the Pseudomonas genus according to morphological properties such as color and shape of the colonis and studed from the phenotypic and molecular view point. All the strains had positive result through the hypersensitive reaction test in tobacco and geranium leaves, but during other phenotypic and molecular tests, they had different results. These tests proved that half of the strains in this study have the most similarity to P. syringae. Using two pairs of specific primers that designed based on the 16S-23S rRNA (ITS) sequence, by the name of PsaF1⁄R2 and PsaF3⁄R4, made it clear that strains: 20, 86, 101, 138, 132, 117, 194 and 230, are belonging to P. syringae pv. actinidiae. This experience that rpoD gene sequence of other 17 strains and its dissimilarity to any of the rpoD gene sequences, belonged to the species of genus Pseudomonas in the genebank, proves that these strains are unknown species of Pseudomonas, makes it necessary that determind the taxonomic status of these strains further investigations are required.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Kiwifruit
  • Bacterial leaf spot
  • Pseudomonas
  • Iran
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