c3518cb17d976b8

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاهپزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

شته جالیز Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) یکی از مهم‌ترین آفات خیار است که مقاومت آن در برابر حشره کش‌ها باعث ایجاد مشکلات بسیاری در کنترل آن شده است. در این مطالعه ، حساسیت آفت به حشره کش‌های اسپیروتترامات و فلونیکامید برای دو جمعیت جمع آوری شده از کرج (استان البرز) و بیرجند (استان خراسان جنوبی)، ایران مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمون‌های زیست سنجی به روش غوطه وری دیسک برگ انجام شد. مرگ و میر پس از 72 ساعت ثبت شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها توسط نرم افزار Polo-Plus انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در جمعیت کرج و بیرجند، مقدار غلظت کشنده 50درصد برای اسپیروتترامات به ترتیب 81/52 و 35/33 میلی گرم ماده موثره بر لیتر و برای فلونیکامید نیز به ترتیب 78/6 و 7/3 میلی گرم ماده موثره بر لیتر بود. مقادیر نسبت LC50 برای اسپیروتترامات و فلونیکامید برای این جمعیت‌ها به ترتیب 633/1 و 829/1بود که بطور معنی داری متفاوت بودند. همچنین نتایج آزمایشات بیوشیمیایی مقاومت بالاتری را در جمعیت کرج نشان داد. آنزیم‌های مختلف درگیر در مقاومت شامل کربوکسیل استراز (ارزیابی شده توسط آلفا نفتیل استات و بتا نفتیل استات)، گلوتاتیون اس-ترانسفراز و مونواکسیژناز است. نسبت فعالیت آنزیم‌های فوق الذکر در جمعیت کرج به ترتیب 39/1 ، 29/1 ، 51/1 و 06/1 برابر بیشتر از جمعیت بیرجند بود. نتایج آنزیمی موازی با نتایج بدست آمده از آزمون‌های زیست سنجی بود. بنابراین، به نظر می‌رسد که هر سه سیستم آنزیمی در سم زدایی ترکیبات آزمایش شده نقش دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Enzymatic susceptibility evaluation of different populations of melon aphid Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to two insecticides: spirotetramat and flonicamid

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Mohammad Nejad Havestin 1
  • Qodratollah Sabahi 2

1 Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran,

2 University of Tehran

چکیده [English]

Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important pests of cucumber and its resistance to insecticides has caused many problems in controlling measures. Collecting fundamental data by using bioassay and biochemical tests is essential for pest resistance management. In this study, the susceptibility of the pest to the insecticides; spirotetramat and flonicamid was investigated for two populations collected from Karaj (Alborz Province) and Birjand (South Khorasan Province), Iran. Bioassay tests were conducted by leaf disk immersion method. Mortality was recorded after 72 hours. The data analysis was performed by Polo-Plus software. Results showed that in Karaj and Birjand populations, the LC50 values for spirotetramat were 52.81 and 33.35 mg. a.i /L, respectively, and for flonicamid were 6.78 and 3.7 mg. a.i/L, respectively. The LC50 Ratio values for spirotetramat and flonicamid were 1.633 and 1.829 for those populations, respectively which were significantly different. Also results of biochemical tests showed higher resistance in Karaj population. Different enzymes involved in resistance include carboxyl esterase (evaluated by α-naphthyl acetate and ß-naphthyl acetate substrate), glutathione S-transferase and monooxygenase. The activity ratios of above-mentioned enzymes in Karaj population were 1.39، 1.29، 1.51 and 1.06 times higher than those in Birjand population, respectively. The enzymatic results were parallel with the results obtained from the bioassay tests. Therefore, it seems that all three enzymatic systems are involved in detoxifying of the tested compounds.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Melon aphid
  • Resistance
  • Detoxifying enzymes
  • Metabolic detoxification
  1. Almasi, A; Rasekh, A; Esfandiari, M; Askari, M & Ziaei, M. (2016) Evaluation on toxicity of Imidacloprid and Primicarb insecticides on different developmental stages of melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Plant Protection, 39(2). 71-83 pp. (in Farsi)
  2. Alptekin, S., Bass, C., Nicholls, C., Paine, M. J., Clark, S. J., Field, L., & Moores, G. D. (2016). Induced thiacloprid insensitivity in honeybees (Apis mellifera) is associated with up‐regulation of detoxification genes. Insect Molecular Biology25(2), 171-180.‏
  3. Asperen, K. V. (1962). A study of housefly esterases by means of a sensitive colorimetric method. Journal of Insect Physiology, 8(4), 401-414.
  4. Bass, C., Puinean, A. M., Andrews, M., Cutler, P., Daniels, M., Elias, J., & Foster, S. P. (2011). Mutation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunit is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicaeBmc Neuroscience12(1), 51.‏
  5. Berenbaum, M. R., & Johnson, R. M. (2015). Xenobiotic detoxification pathways in honey bees. Current Opinion in Insect Science10, 51-58.‏
  6. Board, P. G., & Menon, D. (2013). Glutathione transferases, regulators of cellular metabolism and physiology. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (bba)-General Subjects1830(5), 3267-3288.‏
  7. Bock, K. W. (2016). The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal plant arms-race and co-evolution. Biochemical pharmacology99, 11-17.‏
  8. Bradford, Marion M. "A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding." Analytical Biochemistry, 72.1-2 (1976): 248-254.
  9. Brück, E., Elbert, A., Fischer, R., Krueger, S., Kühnhold, J., Klueken, A. M., ... & Steffens, R. (2009). Movento®, an innovative ambimobile insecticide for sucking insect pest control in agriculture: biological profile and field performance. Crop Protection28(10), 838-844.‏
  10. Chen, J. C., Wang, Z. H., Cao, L. J., Gong, Y. J., Hoffmann, A. A., & Wei, S. J. (2018). Toxicity of seven insecticides to different developmental stages of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci MED (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in multiple field populations of China. Ecotoxicology27(6), 742-751.‏
  11. Eid, A. E., El-Heneidy, A. H., Hafez, A. A., Shalaby, F. F., & Adly, D. (2018). On the control of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii(Hemiptera: Aphididae), on cucumber in greenhouses. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 28(1), 64.
  12. Emami, K and Valizadegan, O. (2015) Evaluation of toxisity of two insecticides Movento and Proteus against adult of Aphis faba scop (hom: Aphididae), 4th National Conference on Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran, Mehr Arvand Higher Education Institute - Environmental Lovers Extension Group, 6pp. (in Farsi).
  13. Emami, K & Karimpour, Y. (2019) Evaluation of toxisity of two insecticides Movento and Proteus against Green peach aphid Mysus persicae (Hom: Aphididae), 5th International Conference on Agricultural and Environmental Engineering with Sustainable Development Approach, Shiraz, Center for Strategies for Achieving Sustainable Development, 5pp.(in Farsi).
  14. Farha, W., Abd El-Aty, A. M., Rahman, M. M., Shin, H. C., & Shim, J. H. (2016). An overview on common aspects influencing the dissipation pattern of pesticides: a review. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment188(12), 693.‏
  15. Gong, Y., Shi, X., Desneux, N., & Gao, X. (2016). Effects of spirotetramat treatments on fecundity and carboxylesterase expression of Aphis gossypii Ecotoxicology, 25(4), 655-663.
  16. Gonzalez, D., Fraichard, S., Grassein, P., Delarue, P., Senet, P., Nicolaï, A., ... & Heydel, J. M. (2018). Characterization of a Drosophila glutathione transferase involved in isothiocyanate detoxification. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology95, 33-43.‏
  17. Habig, William H., Michael J. Pabst, and William B. Jakoby. "Glutathione S-transferases the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation." Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249.22 (1974).
  18. Hosseininaveh, V and Ghadmiari, M. (2013). Fundamentals and concepts of laboratory methods in biochemistry, physiology and toxicology of insects. University of Tehran Press. 577pp.
  19. Jiang, H., Tian, Y., Yan, W., Chen, J., Zhang, Z., & Xu, H. (2020). Drip chemigation of flonicamid effectively controls cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) and is benign to lady beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) and lacewing larva (Chrysoperla sinica). Crop Protection129, 105039.‏
  20. Khan, S., Uddin, M. N., Rizwan, M., Khan, W., Farooq, M., Shah, A. S., ... & Ali, S. (2020). Mechanism of Insecticide Resistance in Insects/Pests. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies29(3).‏
  21. Koo, H. N., An, J. J., Park, S. E., Kim, J. I., & Kim, G. H. (2014). Regional susceptibilities to 12 insecticides of melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and a point mutation associated with imidacloprid resistance. Crop Protection, 55, 91-97.
  22. Li, X., Schuler, M. A., & Berenbaum, M. R. (2007). Molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance to synthetic and natural xenobiotics. Annual Review of Entomology, 52, 231-253.
  23. Margaritopoulos, J. T., Kati, A. N., Voudouris, C. C., Skouras, P. J., & Tsitsipis, J. A. (2020). Long-term studies on the evolution of resistance of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to insecticides in Greece. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 1-16.‏
  24. Morita, M., Ueda, T., Yoneda, T., Koyanagi, T., & Haga, T. (2007). Flonicamid, a novel insecticide with a rapid inhibitory effect on aphid feeding. Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 63(10), 969-973.
  25. Pan, Y., Guo, H., & Gao, X. (2009). Carboxylesterase activity, cDNA sequence, and gene expression in Malathion susceptible and resistant strains of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 152(3), 266-270.
  26. Pan, Y., Zhu, E., Gao, X., Nauen, R., Xi, J., Peng, T., ... & Shang, Q. (2017). Novel mutations and expression changes of acetyl‐coenzyme A carboxylase are associated with spirotetramat resistance in Aphis gossypii Glover. Insect molecular biology26(4), 383-391.‏
  27. Pan, Y., Chai, P., Zheng, C., Xu, H., Wu, Y., Gao, X., ... & Shang, Q. (2018). Contribution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP380C6 to spirotetramat resistance in Aphis gossypiiPesticide Biochemistry and Physiology148, 182-189.‏
  28. Pan, Y., Wen, S., Chen, X., Gao, X., Zeng, X., Liu, X., ... & Shang, Q. (2020). UDP-glycosyltransferases contribute to spirotetramat resistance in Aphis gossypii Glover. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 104565.‏
  29. Peng, T., Pan, Y., Yang, C., Gao, X., Xi, J., Wu, Y., ... & Shang, Q. (2016). Over-expression of CYP6A2 is associated with spirotetramat resistance and cross-resistance in the resistant strain of Aphis gossypii Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 126, 64-69.
  30. Rane, R. V., Walsh, T. K., Pearce, S. L., Jermiin, L. S., Gordon, K. H., Richards, S., & Oakeshott, J. G. (2016). Are feeding preferences and insecticide resistance associated with the size of detoxifying enzyme families in insect herbivores?. Current Opinion in Insect Science13, 70-76.‏
  31. Seyedebrahimi, S. S., Jahromi, K. T., Imani, S., Naveh, V. H., & Hesami, S. (2016). Resistance to imidacloprid in different field populations of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hem.: Aphididae) in South of Iran. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, 48(1), 6-10.
  32. Shojaei, A., Talebi Jahromi, K., Hosseininaveh, V., & Sabahi, G. (2018). Synergistic Effects of Amitraz on Imidacloprid and Malathion against cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hem: Aphididae). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 20(2), 299-308.
  33. Taylor-Wells, J., Gross, A. D., Jiang, S., Demares, F., Clements, J. S., Carlier, P. R., & Bloomquist, J. R. (2018). Toxicity, mode of action, and synergist potential of flonicamid against mosquitoes. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology151, 3-9.‏
  34. Van Pottelberge, S., Van Leeuwen, T., Nauen, R., & Tirry, L. (2009). Resistance mechanisms to mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors in a field-collected strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 99(1), 23-31.
  35. William, G. B., & Janet, C. (1997). Heme peroxidase activity measured in single mosquitoes identifies individuals expressing an elevated oxidase for insecticide resistance. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 13(3), 233-237.
  36. Wang, J. J., Cheng, W. X., Ding, W., & Zhao, Z. M. (2004). The effect of the insecticide dichlorvos on esterase activity extracted from the psocids, Liposcelis bostrychophila and entomophila. Journal of Insect Science, 4(1).
  37. Zhu, Y. C., & Luttrell, R. (2015). Altered gene regulation and potential association with metabolic resistance development to imidacloprid in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolarisPest Management Science71(1), 40-57.‏