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جدا سازی، شناسایی و پراکنش گونه‌های Fusariumآلوده کننده خاک در دو اقلیم مختلف افغانستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاه پزشکی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 گروه گیاه پزشکی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران-کرج -ایران

3 استاد/ گروه گیاهپزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 گروه گیاه پزشکی ، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

5 استاد یار، گروه اگرانومی، دانشکده زراعت، دانشگاه بامیان، افغانستان

چکیده

اعضای جنس Fusarium از بیمارگرهای مهم خاکزاد می‌باشند که سبب بروز خسارت جدی در تولید محصولات زراعی و باغی در دنیا می‌گردند. به‌منظور بررسی گونه‌های Fusarium آلوده کننده خاک‌های زراعی در مناطق بامیان و دایکندی با اقلیم نیمه صحرایی و مناطق قندهار و هلمند با اقلیم صحرایی افغانستان، نمونه برداری در سال‌های 1398-1397 صورت گرفت. برای جداسازی جدایه‌های Fusarium از نمونه های خاک، از محیط کشت اختصاصی PPA (Pepton PCNB Agar) استفاده شد. همچنین جهت شناسایی اولیه جدایه‌ها از ویژگی‌های ریخت شناختی براساس کشت جدایه ها روی محیط‌های کشت CLA، SNA و PDA استفاده شد. به منظور شناسایی مولکولی جدایه‌ها توالی یابی بر اساس ناحیه ی ژنی tef-1α صورت گرفت. در مجموع 134 جدایه Fusarium جداسازی گردید که در 11 گونه مختلف قرار گرفتند. به‌طوریکه حضور گونه‌های (FIESC) F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (%28)، F. solani (%16)، F. acuminatum (%6)، F. verticillioides (%5)، F. oxysporum (%3)، F. coeruleum(%1) و F. compactum (%1) با فراوانی متفاوت در هر دو اقلیم مورد نمونه برداری ردیابی شد. گونهF. sambucinum (%1) در مناطقی که زمستان فوق العاده سرد و تابستان خشک داشتند و دارای اقلیم نیمه صحرایی بودند جداسازی گردید. درحالیکه گونه‌های F. proliferatum (%18)، F. culmorum (%13) و F. pseudograminearum (%1)، و در مناطقی که زمستان معتدل و تابستان فوق العاده گرم داشتند و دارای اقلیم صحرایی بودند جداسازی شدند. نتایج بدست آمده در این تحقیق در رابطه با پراکنش جغرافیایی گونه‌های مختلف Fusarium در افغانستان اطلاعات مفیدی در رابطه با مدیریت بهتر این بیمارگرهای خاکزاد در مزرعه در اختیار ما قرار می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Isolation, identification and dissemination of Fusarium species from soil of two different climates in Afghanistan

نویسندگان [English]

  • habibullah bahlolzada 1
  • Hossein Saremi 2
  • Mohammad Javan Nikkhah 3
  • Maryam Fallahi 4
  • seyed mohammad bagher Hosseini 5
1 department of plant protection, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 department of plant protection, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran,Karaj-Iran
3 Professor/Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Science,, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Science,, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
5 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture, University of Bamyan, Afghanistan
چکیده [English]

The members of Fusarium is one of the important causal egent of soil borne diseases which cause serious damage in the agricultural and horticultural crops in the world. In order to investigate Fusarium destributions in agricultural soils in the Bamyan and Daikundi with semi desert climates, Kandahar and Helmand with desert climates, sampling was performed in Afghanistan in 2018-2019. The PPA medium (Pepton PCNB Agar) was used for Fusarium isolations. For morphological characterisation, pure cultures were transferred to CLA (Carnation Leaf-piece Agar), SNA (Synthetic Nutrient Agar ) and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) mediums and gene sequencing of tef-lα regions were performed for molecular identification. Totally 134 Fusarium isolates were obtained and grouped in 11 different species. The presence of F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) (28%), F. solani (16%), F. acuminatum (6%), F.verticillioides (5%), F. oxysporum (3%), F. coeruleum (1%) and F. compactum (1%) with different frequency were detected in both regions of the sampling areas. F. sambucinum (1%) was detected in semi-desert climates (Bamyan and Daikundi provinces), While F. proliferatum (18%), F. culmorum (13%) and F. Pseudograminearum (1%) were isolated and identified in areas with desert climates (Helmand and Kandahar provinces). The results this study, geographical distribution of various species of Fusarium in Afghanistan, provide useful information about management of soil borne Fusarium pathogens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fusarium
  • Desert climate
  • Semi desert climate
  • morphological identification
  • tef-1α
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