ارتباط محتوای فنولی غلات با حساسیت به ایمیداکلوپراید و سطح فعالیت آنزیمهای سم زدایی Diuraphis noxia

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 ﮔﺮوه ﺣﺸﺮهﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ، دانشکده کشاورزی، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه آزاد اﺳﻼﻣﻲ، واحد اراک، اراک، اﻳﺮان

2 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، اﻳﺮان

3 گروه گیاهپزشکی،دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران


شته روسی گندم، Diuraphis noxia، یکی از آفات اقتصادی و چند‌خوار غلات است که در معرض ترکیبات شیمیایی متنوعی از جمله فنول‌ها قرار می‌گیرد. در این تحقیق برای بررسی تاثیر احتمالی محتوای فنولی میزبان بر کارآیی کنترل شیمیایی، حساسیت به ایمیداکلوپرید در شته‌های پرورش یافته روی ارقام گندم (شیرودی و گاسکوژن) و تریتیکاله (سناباد و جوانیلو 92) به روش زیست‌سنجی گلخانه‌ای مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. مقادیر LC50 ایمیداکلوپرید علیه جمعیت‌های مذکور به ترتیب 41/2، 56/3، 89/4 و 73/5 میلی­گرم ماده موثره بر لیتر بدست آمد. لذا بیشترین حساسیت به ایمیداکلوپرید به جمعیت شیرودی تعلق گرفت. بر اساس مطالعات بیوشیمیایی، فعالیت آلفا و بتا استراز‌ها، گلوتاتیون اس ترانسفرازها و سیتوکروم P450 برای جمعیت گاسکوژن به ترتیب، 32/1، 16/1، 16/1 و 5/1 برابر جمعیت شیرودی بود. این نسبت برای جمعیت سناباد به ترتیب 82/1و 96/1، 4/1 و 2 و برای جمعیت جوانیلو 92 به ترتیب 09/2، 48/2، 51/1 و 25/2 بدست آمد. فزون‌بر‌این، محتوای فنولی ارقام مذکور به ترتیب 19/2، 71/2، 48/3 و 87/3 میلی­گرم به ازای هر گرم برگ برآورد شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها، همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری بین محتوای فنولی گیاهان با موارد مورد پژوهش را نشان داد. با توجه به روابط بیوشیمیایی بین D. noxia و گیاهان میزبان آن می‌توان مقدار ترکیبات فنولی غلات را به عنوان شاخصی‌ مناسب برای پیش‌بینی پاسخ این شته به ایمیداکلوپرید معرفی کرد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Correlation of cereal phenolic content with Imidacloprid susceptibility and detoxification enzyme activities of Diuraphis noxia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamideh Tabasian 1
  • Shila Goldasteh 1
  • Gholamhossein Moravvej 2
  • Elham Sanatgar 1
  • Mohammad Ghadamyari 3
1 Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
3 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia is one of the economic and polyphagous pests of cereals that are exposed to various chemicals such as phenols. In this research, to investigate the possible effect of host phenolic content on the effectiveness of chemical control, Imidacloprid susceptibility was detected for aphids reared on wheat (Shiroodi and Gascogne) and triticale (Sanabad and Juanillo 92) cultivars, under greenhouse bioassay. The LC50 values of Imidacloprid against the mentioned populations were 2.41, 3.56, 4.89, and 5.73 mg a.i. L-1, respectively. Therefore, the highest Imidacloprid susceptibility belonged to the Shiroodi population. Based on biochemical studies, the activity of alpha and beta esterases, glutathione S transferases, and cytochrome P450 for the Gascogne population was 1.32, 1.16, 1.16, and 1.5 times that of the Shiroodi population, respectively. These ratios were 1.82, 1.96, 1.4, and 2 for the Sanabad population and 2.09, 2.48, 1.51, and 2.25 for the Juanillo 92 population, respectively. Moreover, the phenol content of the mentioned cultivars was 2.19, 2.71, 3.48, and 3.87 mg per gram of leaf, respectively. The data analysis showed a positive and significant correlation between the cereals' phenolic content with the research subjects. Considering the biochemical relationships between D. noxia and its host plants, the value of plant phenolics can be suggested as a suitable index for the prediction of aphid response to Imidacloprid.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Greenhouse bioassays
  • cytochrome P450
  • Russian wheat aphid
  • carboxylesterases
  • glutathione S transferases

Extended Abstract


    Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera, Aphididae), is one of the economic pests of small grain cereals with wide distribution. Currently, the use of chemical compounds is one of the most common and effective methods of RWA management in many countries, including Iran. However, characteristics of insects, plants, and their environment can alter the effectiveness of chemical control. For example, the quantity and quality of plant chemical compounds can change their sensitivity to pesticides through the induction or inhibition of pest detoxification enzymes. This study was conducted to compare the susceptibility of host-associated populations of RWA to Imidacloprid insecticide and to determine the effect of pre-adaptation of host phenolic content on the activity of carboxylesterase (CarEs) enzymes, glutathione S-transferases (GSH) and cytochrome P450 (CYPs) of RWA.


Materials and Methods

    RWA was obtained from an infected barely field in Torbat-e Jam, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, and was identified based on the identification key of Blackman and Eastop (2000). The aphids reared on wheat (Triticum aestivum. varieties Shiroodi and Gascogne) and triticale (Triticosecale wittmack, varieties Sanabad and Juanillo92) seedlings in a greenhouse, based on the method of Veisi et al. (2012) with slight modifications.

The insecticide susceptibility was measured using a greenhouse bioassay according to the procedures described by Bayoun et al. (1995) with slight modifications. Then, the activity level of RWA detoxification enzymes was determined. The activity of CarEs was measured according to the method of Van Asperen (1962), using two substrates of α- and β-naphthyl acetate. GST activity was determined using reduced GSH and 1-chloro-2,4- dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrates based on the method described by Habig et al. (1974) with slight modifications used by Ghadamyari & Jalali Sendi (2009). For the detection of CYPs activity, the iron-containing protein concentration of aphids was measured according to the method of Brogdon et al. (1997) and the data of absorption changes were compared with the standard curve of pure cytochrome C (Hosseini naveh & Ghadamyari, 2013). In addition, the phenolic content of host plants was assayed according to the method of Seevers & Daly (1970).

Bioassay data were evaluated by Polo-Plus software (LeOra Software, 2003). A comparison of the relative toxicity of Imidacloprid against the investigated populations was done according to the method of Robertson & Preisler (1992). One-way analysis of variance followed by Tuckey’s test with a 95% confidence interval to detect differences between the mean enzyme activities of experimental populations. The average phenolic content of cereal leaves was also compared in the same way. Finally, the correlations between the total phenolic content of host plants and calculated variables of RWA were determined. All analyses were carried out using SPSS 16.0 software (SPSS, 2007).


Results and Discussion

    According to bioassay results, the susceptibility of Shiroodi population to Imidacloprid was 1.48, 2.03, and 2.38 fold higher that than of Gascogne, Sanabad, and Juanillo 92 populations, respectively. Such differences may be due to the induction of detoxification enzymes for the adaptation of RWA with cereal phytochemicals. Metabolic assays confirmed that the activity of α- and β-esterases, GST, and CYPs for the Gascogne population was 1.32, 1.16, 1.16, and 1.5 times higher that than of the Shiroodi population, respectively. These ratios were 1.82, 1.96, 1.4, and 2 for the Sanabad population and 2.09, 2.48, 1.51 and 2.25 for the Juanillo 92 population, respectively. On the other hand, the phenolic content of the mentioned varieties was 2.19, 2.71, 3.48, and 3.87 mg per gram of leaf, respectively. The data analysis showed a positive and significant correlation between the cereal's phenolic content with the research subjects (the r-value about susceptibility to Imidacloprid was 0.999 and about the mentioned enzymes were 0.798, 0.807, 0.817, and 0.687, respectively). According to these findings, the susceptibility of host-associated populations of RWA to Imidacloprid is affected by feeding on the host plants. The effectiveness of this insecticide against RWA decreases with increasing the activity of aphid's detoxification enzymes and the induction of these enzymes is directly affected by the phenolic content of wheat and triticale leaves.



   The present study showed that host-associated populations of RWA have different susceptibility to Imidacloprid. Increasing the activity of RWA detoxification enzymes for adaptation to plant phenolic content, leads to a decrease in the insect's sensitivity to Imidacloprid. Therefore, the phenolic content of cereal leaves can be introduced as an index to predict the efficacy of Imidacloprid insecticide against RWA. Determining the relationship between other cereal phytochemicals and the effectiveness of Imidacloprid is recommended for the successful management of this aphid.

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