c3518cb17d976b8

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه حشره‌شناسی کشاورزی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 دانشیار، گروه حشره‌شناسی کشاورزی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

چکیده

امروزه بررسی‌‌ها برای استفاده از عصاره‌‌های گیاهی مانند اکدیستروئید‌‌های گیاهی، به دلیل توانایی بالا در کنترل آفات در حال افزایش است. گزارش‌‌هایی از وجود ترکیبات اکدیستروئیدی در برخی گونه‌‌های سرخس وجود دارد، اما تاکنون گزارشی از اثر چنین ترکیباتی در سرخس شترمرغی در دست نیست. در این پژوهش، اثر غلظت‌‌های زیرکشندۀ عصارۀ متانولی گیاه سرخس شترمرغی Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) (Onocleaceae) روی شب‌پرۀ پشت‌الماسی Plutella xylostella (L.)(Lepidoptera:Plutellidae) بررسی شد. لارو‌های سن سوم شب‌پرۀ پشت‌الماسی به مدت دو روز از غذای تیمارشده با عصارۀ متانولی تغذیه کردند. سپس روی برگ‌‌های تیمارنشده پرورش داده شدند  تا حشرات کامل خارج شدند. از تخم‌های حاصل از جفت‌گیری حشرات کامل برای انجام آزمایش‌‌های دموگرافی استفاده شد. آزمایش‌‌ها در شرایط دمایی 1 ± 27 درجۀ سلسیوس و رطوبت 5 ± 65 درصد و شرایط نوری 8:16 (روشنایی و تاریکی) بررسی شد. لارو‌های خارج‌شده از تخم در نسل جدید روی برگ‌‌های تیمارنشده پرورش یافتند. نتایج نشان داد که نرخ خالص تولید مثل (R0)، نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت (rm)، نرخ متناهی افزایش جمعیت (λ) با افزایش عصاره کاهش یافت. بیشترین نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت و نرخ متناهی جمعیت به‌ترتیب 002/0 ±19/0 (روز) و 06/0 ± 21/1 (روز) در غلظت 69/0درصد بود. پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که با افزایش غلظت عصاره، مدت زمان یک نسل (T) و مدت زمان دو برابر شدن جمعیت (DT) افزایش یافته است. با توجه به نتایج فوق، عصارۀ متانولی سرخس شترمرغی به عنوان یک ترکیب کم‌خطر توانایی زیادی در کنترل شب‌پرۀ پشت‌الماسی دارد و می‌توان از عصارۀ متانولی سرخس شترمرغی به عنوان ترکیب مؤثر در برنامه‌‌های مدیریت تلفیقی آفات استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of ecdysteroidal extracts of Matteuccia struthiopteris on demographic parameters of Plutella xylostella

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Tabebordbar 1
  • Saeid Moharramipour 2

1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Plant extracts, like phytoecdysteroids, are currently studied because of the possibility of their use in plant protection. There are several reports concerning the presence of ecdysteroid. But there is no report on possibility of ecdysteroidal compounds in Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.)(Onocleaceae). In this research, the effect of lethal and sublethal concentration of methanolic extract of M. struthiopteris was examined on Plutella xylostella (L.). Ecdysteroidal extracts of leaves from this plant were incorporated into food given to third instar larvae for two days. Then the larvae were reared on untreated leaves. Experiment was carried out at 27±1ºC¸ 65±5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) h. Compared to control, methanolic extracts fed at larval stage led to significant decrease in the percentage of pupation and adult emergence. The eggs from the emerging adults were picked up for demographic experiments. The rearing of the newly hatched larvae was continued individually on untreated leaves. Data analysis demonstrated that significant decrease in net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and finite rate of increase (λ). The highest values for rm and λ were 0.19±0.002 day-1 and 1.21±0.06 days, at 0.69%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that mean generation time (T) and doubling time (DT) was increased significantly as concentration of the extract increased. These findings indicated that M. struthiopteris are effective for the control of P. xylostella. Therefore, this extract has potential to use as a reliable method in integrated management of this pest.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phytoecdysteroids
  • Matteuccia struthiopteris
  • Plutella xylostella
  • demographic
Arnault, C. & Slama, K. (1986). Dietary effects of phytoecdysone in the leek-moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella Zell. (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 12, 1979-1986.
Blackford, M., Clarke, B. & Dinan, L. (1996). Tolerance of the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis to ingested phytoecdysteroids. Journal of Insect Physiology, 42, 931-936.
Blackford, M. & Dinan, L. (1997). The effect of ingested ecdysteroid agonists (20-hydroxyecdysone, RH5849 and RH5992) and an ecdysteroid antagonist (Cucurbitacin B) on larval development of two polyphagous lepidopterans (Acherontia  atropos and Lacanobia oleracea). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 83, 263-276.
Carey, J. R. (1993). Applied demography for biologists with special emphasis on insect. Oxford University Press, New York. 211 pp.
Dinan, L. (1992).The analysis of phytoecdysteroids in single (pre flowering stage) specimens of fat hen, Chenopodium album. Phytochemical Analysis, 3 (3), 132-138.
Dinan, L. (2001). Phytoecdysteroids: Biological aspect. Phytochemistry, 57, 325-339.
Dinan, L. and Sehnal F. (1995). A strategy for the identification of ecdysteroid receptor agonists and antagonists from plants. European Journal of Entomology, 92 (1), 271-283.
Eziah, V. Y. , Rose, H. A., Clift, A. D. & Mansfield, S. (2008). Susceptibility of four field populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) to six insecticides in the Sydney region, New South Wales. Australian  Journal of Entomology, 47, 355-360.
Finney, D. J. (1971). Probit Analysis, 3rd Edition. Cambridge University, London. 333 pp.
Fujiwara, Y., Takahashi, T., Yoshioka, T. & Nakasuji, F. (2002). Changes in egg size of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) treated with fenvalerate at sublethal doses and viability of the eggs. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 37, 103-109.
Haseeb, M., Kobori, Y., Amino, H. & Nemoto, H. (2002).Population density of Plutella  xylostella and its parasitoid Cotesia plutellae on two varieties of cabbage in an urban environment. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 36, 353-360.
Hamilton, A. J., Endersby, N. M., Ridland, P. M., Zhang, J. & Neal, M. (2005).Effects of cultivar on oviposition preference, larval feeding and development time of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella on some Brassica oleracea vegetables in Victoria. Australian Journal of Entomology, 44, 284-287.
Kubo, I., Klocke, J. A. & Asano, S. (1983). Effects of ingested phytoecdysteroids on the growth and development of two lepidopterous larvae. Journal of Insect Physiology, 29, 307–316.
Lafont, R. (1997). Ecdysteroids and related molecules in animals and plants. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 35, 3-20.
Liang, G., Chen, W. & Liu, T. (2003). Effects of three neem-based insecticides on diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: plutellidae). Crop Protection, 22, 333-340.
Mahmoudvand, M., Abbasipour, H., Sheikhi Garjan, A. and Bandani, A. R. (2011). Sublethal effects of indoxacarb on the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 46, 75-80.
Malausa, T.,  Salles, M., Marquet, V., Guillemaud, T.,  Alla, S., Marion-Poll, F. & lapchin, L. (2006). Within –species variability of the response to 20-hydroxyecdysone in peach-potato aphid (Myzus  persicae Sulzer). Journal of Insect Physiology, 52 (5), 480-486.  
Marion-Poll, F. & Descoins, C. (2002). Taste detection of phytoecdysteroids in larvae of Bombyx mori, Spodoptera littoralis and Ostrinia nubilalis. Journal of Insect Physiology, 48, 467-476.
Maia, A. D. H., Luiz, A. J. & Campanhola, C. (2000). Statistical inference on associated fertility life table parameters using jackknife technique: Computational aspects. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93, 511-518.
Rharrabe, K., Bouayad, N. & Sayah, F. (2009). Effects of ingested 20-hydroxyecdysone on development and midgut epithelial cells of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 93, 112-119.
Rharrabe, K., Sayeh, F. & Lafont, R. (2010). Dietary effect of four phytoecdysteroids on growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Journal of Insect Science, 10(13), 1-12.
Slama, K. & Lafont, R. (1995). Insect hormones-ecdysteroids: their presence and actions in vertebrates. European Journal of Entomology, 92, 355-377.
Sayyed, A. H., Attique, N. M. R., Khaliq, A. & Wright D. J. (2005). Inheritance of resistance and cross-resistance to deltamethrin in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Pakistan. Pest management Science, 61: 636-642.
Schmelz, E. A., Grebenok, R. J., Galbraith, D. W. & Bowers, W. S. (1999).Insect-induced synthesis of phytoecdysteroids in spinach, Spinacia oleracea. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25, 1739-1757.
Sota, N., Motoyama, N., Fujisaki, K. & Nakasuji, F. (1998). Possible amplification  of insecticide hormoligosis from resistance in the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 33, 435-440.
Tabashnik, B. E. & Slansky, F. J. (1987). Nutritional ecology of forb foliage-chewing insects. In: Nutritional ecology of insects, mites, spiders, and related invertebrates, eds. Slansky, F. Jr. and Rodriguez, J. G., pp. 71-103. Wiley, New York.
Yin, X. H., Wu, Q. J., Li, X. F., Zhang, Y. J. & Xu, B. Y. (2008). Sublethal effects of spinosad on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Crop Protection, 27, 1385-1391.
Zolotar, R. M., Bykhovets, A. I. & Kovganko, N. V. (2001).Effect of certain phytoecdysteroids on larvae of Leptinotarsa  decemlineata. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 37, 537-540.