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نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد جیرفت

2 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر رفسنجان

3 گروه بیوشیمی بالینی، مرکز تحقیقات فیزیولوژی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان

4 استادیار گروه حشره‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

5 استادیار گروه علوم و تکنولوژی محیطی، دانشکدۀ علوم و فنون نوین، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در این پژوهش تأثیر عصارۀ گیاهان شاترهFumaria parviflora (Lam.) ، کلپورهTeucrium polium (L) و آفت‌کش پی‌متروزین روی کشندگی و فعالیت آنزیم استراز عمومی حشرات کامل سفیدبالک پنبه  Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hem.: Aleyrodidae) در دمای 2±27 درجۀ سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±50 درصد و دورۀ نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی ارزیابی شد. برای آزمایش‌های زیست‌سنجی، بوته‌های دو تا چهار برگی گوجه‌فرنگی رقم مقاوم کال‌جی‌ان‌تری و حساس ارگون در غلظت‌های مختلف عصاره‌ها غوطه‌ور گردید و 72 ساعت بعد از تیمار کردن، مرگ‌ومیر محاسبه شد. این آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تکرار برای هر تیمار انجام گرفت و آب مقطر و متانول به عنوان شاهد استفاده شد. برای ارزیابی اثر تیمارها بر فعالیت آنزیم استراز، بوته‌های دو تا چهار برگی گوجه‌فرنگی ارقام ذکرشده آغشته به غلظت LC25 عصاره‌ها و حشره‌کش شد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان LC50 عصارۀ گیاهان شاتره و کلپوره و آفت‌کش پی‌متروزین برای حشرات کامل پرورش‌یافته روی رقم حساس به‌ترتیب 26/17، 88/93 و 026/0 و برای رقم مقاوم به‌ترتیب 26/13، 36/68 و 019/0 گرم بر لیتر بود. آثار زیرکشندگی عصاره‌ها و آفت‌کش روی میزان فعالیت آنزیم استراز نسبت به شاهد معنادار بود. میزان آنزیم استراز، برای شاهد و حشرات کامل تیمارشده با عصارۀ گیاهان شاتره و کلپوره، آفت‌کش پی‌متروزین روی رقم حساس به‌ترتیب 00161/0، 0086/0، 009/0 و 0038/0 و روی رقم مقاوم 027/0، 0068/0، 0097/0 و 0043/0 میکروگرم آلفانفتیل استات در دقیقه بر میلی‌گرم پروتئین بود؛ بنابراین میزان سمیت عصاره‌ها و آفت‌کش در حشرات پرورش‌یافته روی رقم مقاوم بیشتر از رقم حساس به‌دست آمد. آفت‌کش پی‌متروزین بیشترین سمیت را به خود اختصاص داد و از میان عصاره‌ها سمیت شاتره بیشتر از کلپوره تعیین گردید. میزان فعالیت آنزیم استراز در حشرات تیمارشده روی رقم مقاوم کمتر از رقم حساس به‌دست آمد. با توجه به این نتایج، کاربرد توأم رقم مقاوم گیاهی با عصاره‌های گیاهی یا آفت‌کش می‌تواند به عنوان راهکار مناسب علیه سفیدبالک پنبه در برنامه‌های IPM به‌کار رود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of plant extracts of Fumaria parviflora, Teucrium polium and insecticide pymetrozine on mortality and activity of esterase enzyme of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) on resistant and susceptible variety of

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masomeh Samareh Fekri 1
  • Mohammad Amin Samih 2
  • Bidolah Shahouzahi 3
  • Sohrab Imani 4
  • Mehdi Zarabi 5

1 Department of Plant Protection, Islamic Azad University, Jiroft Branch

2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan

3 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Physiology Research Center, University of Medical Sciences

4 Department of Entomology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

5 Department of Sciences and Environmental Technologies, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran

چکیده [English]

In this research, the effect methanolic extracts of Fumaria parviflora, Teucrium polium and pesticide pymetrozine was assessed on the lethality and general esterase activity of adult Bemisia Tabaci (Genn.) at 27±2°C, 50±5 % RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod. In bioassay experiments tomato plants of resistant (cal-j-n3) and susceptible (Ergon) cultivars with 2-4 leaves were immersed in different concentrations of plant extracts, and mortality was calculated 72 h after treatment. This study was conducted by using a randomized complete design with three replications. For each treatment, distilled water and methanol were used as control. To evaluate effects of treatments on esterase activity, seedling with 2-4  leaves are being thread with extracts and insecticides (LC25). The results showed that, the LC50 of the extract of F. parviflora, T.polium and pesticides pymetrozine for adults reared on susceptible and resistant cultivars, were, 17.26, 93.88, 0.026 and 13.26, 68.36, 0.019(g/lit), respectively. Sublethal effect of extracts and pesticides was significant on esterase enzyme activity compared to control. The amount of esterase enzymes, for control and adults treated with the extract of F. parviflora, T.Polium, pesticides pymetrozine  on susceptible cultivar, were 0.0161, 0.0086, 0.009 ,0.0038, respectively  and for resistant cultivar were 0.027,  0.0068, 0.0097, 0.0043 (μg alpha naphtyl acetat per minute/mg protein) respectively. Thus the rate of toxicity of F. parviflora  T. polium extracts, and pesticide pymetrozine was more insects that reared on resistant variety in comparison of adults that reared on susceptible variety. Also, pesticide Pymetrozine showed the most toxicity rate. The toxicity rate of F. Parviflora was recorded more than T. polium. Esterase enzyme activity was more in treated insects on resistant varieties compared to susceptible varieties. According to the results usage of resistant varieties with plant extract or pesticide can be a good strategy against whitefly in IPM programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • bioassay
  • lethal and sublethal effects
  • LC50
  • plant resistant
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