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جداسازی و بیماری‌زایی قارچ‌های مرتبط با پوسیدگی ریشه و طوقۀ درختان گردو در شهرستان کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشگاه کردستان

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه کردستان

3 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه

چکیده

طی بازدیدهایی که از باغ‌های گردو در شهرستان کرمانشاه به عمل آمد، از ریشه و طوقه و خاک همراه ریشه و طوقۀ درختان گردو که علائم زوال، پوسیدگی طوقه و ریشۀ مشکوک به آلودگی Pythium وPhytophthora  داشتند نمونه‌هایی جمع‌آوری شد. نمونه‌ها در آزمایشگاه روی محیط‌های کشت عمومی و نیمه‌انتخابی کشت شد. بر اساس خصوصیات مرفولوژیک، اندام‌های جنسی و غیرجنسی و میزان رشد کلنی قارچ در دماهای مختلف و تطابق با منابع معتبر، سیزده جدایه متعلق به سه گونۀ Phytophthora cactorum و P. citricola و گونۀ Pythium sp.شناسایی و تشخیص داده شد. خصوصیات جدایه پیتیوم با هیچ یک از گونه‌های شناخته‌شدۀ Pythium در منابع معتبر مطابقت نداشت. دو جدایۀ Pythium sp. (1) و Pythium sp. (2) به‌ترتیب از بافت ریشۀ آلوده درخت گردو و خاک‌آلوده جداسازی گردید. آزمون بیماری‌زایی جدایۀ پیتیوم به همراه دو گونۀ Phytophthora بر روی شاخه‌های بریدۀ گردو در شرایط آزمایشگاه و همچنین دانهال‌های گردو در گلخانه انجام گرفت. بر اساس نتایج آزمایشگاهی گونۀ Phytophthora cactorum  بیشترین میزان توسعۀ بیماری را روی شاخه‌های بریدۀ گردو به خود اختصاص داد و با گونۀ Pythium sp.(1) در یک گروه آماری قرار گرفت. گونۀPhytophthora citricola  وPythium sp.(2)  در گروه بعدی آماری قرار گرفتند. در آزمایش گلخانه‌ای گونۀ  P. citricolaو P. cactorum به‌ترتیب بعد از هشت و دوازده روز منجر به مرگ کامل دانهال‌های گردو شدند. جدایه‌هایPythium sp.  بعد از گذشت چهارده روز باعث خشکیدگی ساقه و برگ‌ها و مرگ دانهال‌ها شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Isolation and pathogenicity of fungi associated with root and crown rot of walnut trees in Kermanshah township

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jahanshir Amini 1
  • Zeynab Azizi 2
  • Mahyar Sheykholeslami 3
1 Associate Professor, University of Kurdistan
2 Former Graduate Student, University of Kurdistan
3 Assistant Professor, Kermanshah Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources
چکیده [English]

The aim of this research, identifying the fungi taxa associated with root and crown rot of walnut trees in Kermanshah. For this purpose, the soil around root of trees and root and crown samples of walnut trees showing disease were collected in different region in Kermanshah. The purified isolates were identified using morphological characters on the different culture media, asexual and sexual organ as well as growth rates at different temperatures. In this research, 13 isolates, belong to three species including Phytophthora cactorum, P. citricola and Pythium sp. were identified. Pythium sp. maybe is a new species, because characteristics of this species did not match completely with other recognized Pythium species. Pythium sp. (1) and Pythium sp. (2) isolated from diseased tissue and infected soil, respectively. Pathogenicity test of these species were performed on excised shoots and seedlings In vitro and In vivo, respectively. Results of In vitro indicated that the most disease extension was appeared by Phytophthora cactorum, but was placed in one statistical group with Pythium sp. (1). Phytophthora citricola and Pythium sp. (2) were placed in the following statistical group. Results of greenhouse experiment shown that, P. citricola and P. cactorum caused complete death of seedlings after 8 and 12 days, respectively. Pythium sp. (1, 2) after 14 days caused drying of stem and leaves and death of seedlings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Walnut
  • Pathogenicity
  • Crown and root rot
  • Pythium
  • Phytophthora
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