c3518cb17d976b8

بررسی تنوع توده‌‌های خربزه و طالبی (Cucumis melo L.) برای مقاومت به پژمردگی فوزاریومی بر مبنای فعالیت آنزیم‌های بیوشیمیایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد اصلاح نباتات دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار اصلاح نباتات دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 استاد پژوهش مؤسسة تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیۀ نهال و بذر

چکیده

بیماری پژمردگی فوزاریومی، نوعی بیماری محدودکنندۀ کشت خربزه‌ییان در جهان و همچنین در ایران است. یکی از روش‌های کنترل این بیماری استفاده از ارقام مقاوم خربزه و طالبی است. در این تحقیق، 57 تودۀ‌ خربزه و طالبی در شرایط گلخانه برای تعیین وضعیت مقاومت در مقابل بیماری پژمردگی آوندی فوزاریومی و روند تغییرات در فعالیت بیوشیمیایی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار ارزیابی شد. در این مطالعه، ریشه‌های زخمی‌شدۀ گیاهچه‌های یک تا دوبرگی 15‌روزه در 50 میلی‌لیتر سوسپانسیون حاوی اسپور Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis با غلظت 106 × 1 در میلی‌لیتر به مدت سه تا چهار دقیقه قرار گرفتند و مایه‌زنی شدند و سپس به سینی‌های کشت منتقل گردیدند. سطح زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری و شدت بیماری به همراه پنج صفت فیزیولوژیک اندازه‌‌‌‌‌‌گیری شد. نتایج تجزیۀ واریانس نشان داد بین توده‌‌ها برای همۀ صفات تحت مطالعه اختلاف معناداری وجود داشت. مقادیر ضریب همبستگی بین صفات مختلف نشان داد که سطح زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری و شدت بیماری با میزان پراکسیداز، پلی‌فنل اکسیداز، فنل کل، کاتالاز و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز همبستگی منفی و معناداری داشت. برای تعیین دوری و نزدیکی توده‌‌ها و همچنین خوشه‌بندی آنها بر مبنای صفات تحت مطالعه، از تجزیۀ خوشه‌ای با روش Ward استفاده شد و با استفاده از معیار مربع فاصلۀ اقلیدوسی توده‌‌ها در سه خوشۀ مجزا شامل مقاوم، نیمه‌مقاوم و حساس خوشه‌بندی شدند. در این آزمایش دورترین فاصله (67/28) میان توده‌های ایزابل و شادگانی 2 به‌دست آمد و به‌ترتیب مقاوم‌ترین و حساس‌ترین توده‌ها به بیماری شناخته شدند. به نظر می‌رسد که با توجه به فاصلۀ بین آنها، با انجام تلاقی و بهره‌گیری از پدیدۀ هتروزیس، می‌توان به نتایجی دست یافت که دارای مقاومت بیشتری نسبت به توده‌های تحت بررسی باشد.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of diversity among some melon (Cucumis melo) accessions for resistance to fusarium wilt based on biochemical enzymes activity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Hanifeie 1
  • Hamid Dehghani 2
  • Rajab Chookan 3
1 . Former M.Sc. Student , Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 . Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute
چکیده [English]

Fusarium wilt is a restrictive disease of melons in the world and Iran. In this research, fifty seven accessions of Cucumis melo, planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The relationship between resistance and changes in biochemical activity were evaluated for these accessions. The wounded root of seedlings after reaching at one to two true leaf stage were placed in inoculum concentrations of 1×106 spores ml-1 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis for 3-4 min and then they were transferred to cultivation trays. Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), disease severity and five physiological traits were measured. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for all traits. The correlation coefficient between different traits showed that the AUDPC and disease severity have a negative correlation with Peroxidase, Polyphenol oxidase, Phenol Compound, Superoxide dismutase and Catalase. The grouping results of genotypes based on squared Euclidean distance measurement and Ward method were clustered these accessions in three groups; resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible. In this study the farthest distance (28.67) was observed between Isabelle and Shadegani2. These accessions recognized as the most resistant and susceptible genotypes, respectively. It seems that due to the distance between them, with make crossing and use of heterosis, we may achieve to progeny that are more resistant in comparing to the evaluated genotypes of this study.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cluster Analysis
  • Correlation
  • Fusarium wilt
  • melon
 
Aguilar, E., Turner, D. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2000). Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense inoculation and hypoxia alter peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities in nodal roots of banana cultivars (Musa sp.) differing in their susceptibility to Fusarium wilt. Australian Journal of Botany, 48(5), 589-596.
Anonymous. (2011). Statistics for crop year 2009-2010. Department of Statistical Information Technology, Ministry of Jahad Agriculture, Tehran, Iran, 449 pp.
Baek, K. H. & Skinner, D. Z. (2003). Alternation of Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression during Cold Acclimation of Near-Isogenic Wheat Lines. Plant Science, 165(6), 1221-1227.
Banihashemi, Z. (1968a). The Biology and Ecology of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in Soil and Root Zones of host and Non Host plants. Ph. D. Thesis. Michigan State University, 114 pp.
Banihashemi, Z. (1982). A new physiologic race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in Iran. Iranian Journal Plant Pathology,18, 1-6 (in Farsi).
Banihashemi, Z. (1989). The existence of race 1 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis on long melon in Garmsar and its virulence to different cultivars of Cucumis melo. In: Proceeding of the 9th. Plant Protection. Congress. Mashhad. Iran.88 pp. (in Farsi)
Banihashemi, Z. (2010). Reaction of cucumis melo cultivars to races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis the cause of melon vascular wilt. Iranian Journal Plant Pathology, 46(1), 11-22 (in Farsi).
Banihashemi, Z. & Dezeeuw, D. J. (1975). The behavior of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in the presence and absence of host plants. Phythopathology, 65, 1212-1217.
Bloch, K., Shichman, E., Vorobeychik, M., Bloch, D. & Vardi, P. (2007). Catalase expression in pancreatic alpha cells of diabetic and non-diabetic mice. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 127, 227-232.
Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and susceptible method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72(1), 248-254.
Cakmak, I. & Horst, W. (1991). Effect of aluminium on lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities in root tip of soybean (Glysine max L.). Plant Physiology, 83(3), 463-468.
Campbell, C. L. & Madden, L. V. (1990). Temporal analysis of epidemics I: description and comparison of disease progress curves. Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, USA. 161-202.
Chikh-Rouhou, H., Gonzalez Torres, R. & Alvarez, J. M. (2008). Characterization of the resistance to Fom race 1.2 in Cucumis melo ‘BG-53841’, cloning and expression in response to wounding and herbivory. Plant Physiology, 124, 285-295.
De Vecchi, L. & Matta, A. (1988). An ultrastructural and cytochmical study of proxidase, polyphenoloxidases and phenols in xylem of tomato plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici or melonis. Caryologia, 42, 103-114.
Falconer, D. S. & Mackay T. F. C. (1996). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Fourth edition. Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow, Essex, UK. 406 pp.
Friend, J. (1981). Plant Phenolics, lignification and plant disease. Progress in Phytochemistry, 7, 197-261.
Garcı́a-Limones, C., Hervás, A., Navas-Cortés, J. A., Jiménez-Dı́az, RM. & Tena, M. (2002). Induction of an antioxidant enzyme system and other oxidative stress markers associated with compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 61(6), 325-337.
Ghanati, F., Morita, A. & Yokota, H. (2002). Induction of suberin and increase of lignin content by excess boron in tobacco cells. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 48 (3), 357–364.
Giannopolitis, CN. & Ries, S. K. (1977). Superoxide dismutases I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant physiology, 59(2), 309-314.
Goodman, R. N., Király, Z. & Wood, K. R. (1986). The biochemistry and physiology of plant disease. University of Missouri Press. 433 pp.
Hallauer, AR., Carena, MJ. & Miranda, J. B. (2010). Quantitative Genetic In Maize Breeding. 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa, USA. 663 pp.
Herman, R. & Perl-Treves, R. (2007). Characterization and inheritance of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in Cucumis melo. Plant Disease, 91(9), 1180-1186.
Holland, J. B. (2005). Estimating genotypic correlations and their standard errors using multivariate restricted maximum likelihood estimation with SAS proc mixed. Crop Science, 46(2), 642-654.
Holland, J. B. (2005). Estimating genotypic correlations and their standard errors using multivariate restricted maximum likelihood estimation with SAS proc mixed. Crop Science, 46(2), 642-654.
Hrubcová, M., Cvikrová, M., Meravy, L., Eder, J. & Binarová, P. (1992). Phenolic accumulation and peroxidase activity in invitro selected alfalfa callus cultures resistant to filtrate of Fusarium spp. Biologia Plantarum, 34, 203-211.
Johnson, R. A. & Wichern, D. W. (1992). Applied multivariate statistical analysis (3th. Ed.). U.S.A. The Iowa State University Press. 597 pp.
Johnson, D. E. (1998). Applied multivariatemethods for data analysis. Dunbury Press, New york, USA. 567 pp.
Kahn, V. (1975). Polyphenol oxidase activity and browning of three avocado varieties. Journal of the Science of food and Agriculture, 26 (9), 1319-1324.
Kirk, R. E. (1995). Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences, 3rd ed. SAGE Publications, California, USA, 1056 pp.
Kosuge, T. (1969). The role of phenolics in host response to infection. Annual review of phytopathology, 7 (1), 195-222.
Macko, V., Woodbury, W. & Stahmann, M. (1968). The effect of peroxidase on the germination and growth of mycelium of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Phytopathology, 58, 1250-1254.
Lilliefors, HW. (1969). On the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 62, 399-402.
Madadkhah, E., Lotfi, M., Nabipour, A., Rahmanpour, S., Banihashemi, Z. & Shoorooei, M. (2012). Enzymatic activities in roots of melon genotypes infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1. Science Horticalture, 135, 171-176.
Mandal, S., Mitra, A. & Mallick, N. (2008). Biochemical characterization of oxidative burst during interaction between Solanum lycopersicum and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici. Physiological and molecular plant pathology, 72(1), 56-61.
Moghaddam, M., Mohammadi, S. A. & Aghaee Sarbarzeh, M. (2009). Multivariate statistical methods a primer. (2nd ed.). Parivar Press Tabriz, Iran. 277 pp.
Mohammadi, S. A. & Prasanna, B. M. (2003). Analysis of genetic diversity in crop plants: Salient statistical tools and considerations. Crop Science, 43(4), 1235-1248.
Morkunas, I. & Bednarski, W. (2008). Fusarium oxysporum-induced oxidative stress and antioxidative defenses of yellow lupine embryo axes with different sugar levels. Journal of Plant Physiology, 165(3), 262-277.
Morkunas, I. & Gemerek, J. (2007). The possible involvement of peroxidase in defense of yellow lupin embryo axes against Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Physiology, 164(2), 497-506.
Perchepied, L. & Pitrat, M. (2004). Polygenic inheritance of partial resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in melon. Phytopathology, 94(12), 1331-1336.
Poostchi, I. (1972). Cucurbit and Cucurbit Cultivation. Franklin Publishing. 330 pp (in Farsi).
Roy, D. (2000). Plant Breeding: Analysis and exploitation of variation. Alpha Science International LTD, 728 pp.
Preston, T. J., Muller, W. J. & Singh, G. (2002). Scavenging of extracellular H2O2 by catalase inhibits the proliferation of HER-2/Neu-transformed rat-1 fibroblasts through the induction of a stress response. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276, 9558-9564.
Ray, H., Douches, D. & Hammerschmidt, R. (1998). Transformation of potato with cucumber peroxidase: expression and disease response. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 53, 93-103.
Risser, G., Banihashemi, Z. & Davis, D. W. (1976). A proposed nomenclature of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis races and resistance genes in Cucumis melo. Phytopatology,66, 1105-1106.
Sarrafi, A. (1978).A yield component selection experiment involving American and Iranian cultivars of the common bean. Crop Science, 18 (1), 5-7.
SAS /STAT users guide. (2004). SAS 9.1 for windows update. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, 668 pp.
Sherf, A. F. & MacNeb, A. A. (1986). Vegetable disease and their control. A Wiley Interscience Publication, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 728 pp.
SPSS INC. (2010). SPSS 19. Users guied. SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA, 635 pp.
Swain, T. & Hillis, W. (1959). The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica L. The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. Journal of the science of Food and Agriculture, 10 (1), 63-68.
Uritani, I. (1965). Molecular pathology in the plant field with special regard to defence action of the host. Deut. Akademic. Landwirtschaftswiss. Berlin DDR. Tagungsber, 74, 201-218.
Yamamoto, H. (1995). Pathogenesis and host-parasite specificity in rusts. Pathogenesis and Host Specificity in Plant Disease. Histopathological, Biochemical, Genetic and Molecular Basis, 2, 203-212.
Yan, W. & Kang, M.S. (2003). GGE Biplot Analysis: A Graphical Tool for Breeders, Geneticists, and Agronomists. CRC press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 288 pp.