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نقش بافت و مقدار مادة آلی خاک (خاک‌برگ) بر توانایی Trichoderma longibrachiatum در تحریک رشد گیاه لوبیا قرمز و کنترل نماتد Meloidogyne javanica

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختة کارشناسی‌ارشد، گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، واحد مرودشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مرودشت، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، واحد مرودشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مرودشت، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش در قالب دو آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایة طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار طراحی شد. آزمایش اول به‌منظور بررسی توانایی قارچ Trichoderma longibrachiatum در تحریک رشد گیاه میزبان و تأثیر آن بر خصوصیات رویشی گیاه لوبیا قرمز (رقم گلی) و در غیاب نماتد مولد گره ریشه شامل سه فاکتور بافت خاک (در سه سطح لوم-شنی، لوم و لوم-رسی)، مادة آلی (خاک‌برگ در دو سطح 5/0 و 2 درصد) و قارچ T. longibrachiatum (در دو سطح 0 و 106 اسپور در هر میلی‌لیتر) بود. در آزمایش دوم نیز اثر سه فاکتور بافت خاک، مادة آلی (خاک‌برگ) و روش کنترل (بدون کنترل، 10 میلی‌لیتر سوسپانسیون اسپور قارچ T. longibrachiatum حاوی 106 اسپور در هر میلی‌لیتر و 2 میلی‌گرم مادة مؤثر بر نماتدکش کادوزافوس از فرم تجارتی گرانول 10% در کیلوگرم خاک) بر خصوصیات رویشی گیاه لوبیا قرمز (رقم گلی)، توانایی قارچ در کنترل نماتد و صفات تکثیری نماتد M. javanica در گیاهان آلوده بررسی شد. قارچ T. longibrachiatum تأثیر معنا‌داری در تحریک رشد گیاه میزبان نداشت. این قارچ بیشترین کارآیی را در خاک لومی یا لوم- شنی حاوی 2% خاک‌برگ نشان داد و توانست فاکتور تولیدمثل نماتد را در انواع بافت‌های آزمایش‌شدة خاک در حد نماتدکش شیمیایی (کادوزافوس) کاهش دهد. گیاه لوبیا در خاک لوم- رسی آلوده به نماتد و بدون خاک‌برگ رشد نکرد و در صورت افزایش خاک‌برگ به خاک رشد آن معنا‌دار نبود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of soil texture and organic matter (leaf litter) content on the ability of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in promoting the growth of kidney bean and controlling Meloidogyne javanica

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Sajadi 1
  • Mohammad Reza Moosavi 2
  • Gholamreza Moafpourian 3
1 Former MSc student, Department of Plant Pathology, Marvdasht branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Marvdasht branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran
3 Research Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Fars, Iran
چکیده [English]

This research was conducted in two separate factorial experiments based on completely randomized designs with four replications. The ability of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in stimulating kidney bean (cv. Goli) growth was assessed in the first experiment with three factors including soil texture (sandy loam, loam, clay loam), organic matter (0.5 and 2% of leaf litter) and fungal application (0 and 106 spore ml-1 suspension) when the plants was not inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica. In the second experiment, the effect of soil texture, organic matter and managing method (no control, 10 ml of T. longibrachiatum containing 106 spore ml-1, and 2 mg active ingredient cadusafos 10G kg-1 soil) was tested on kidney bean growth, fungal controlling ability and M. javanica reproduction. The growth promoting effect of the fungus was not prominent. In the sandy loam or loam soil amended with 2% organic matter (leaf litter), the fungus showed its maximum efficacy and could decrease the nematode reproduction rate same as the chemical nematicide. Clay loam soil was not a suitable bed for kidney bean plants since no growth was seen if the soil that was not amended with organic matter and soil amended with 2% organic matter (leaf litter) resulted in poor growth.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biological control
  • Growth Promoter
  • nematophagous fungi
  • root-knot nematode
  • soil amendment
  • Soil Texture
  • Soil Type
 
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