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بررسی زمستان‌گذرانی و تحمل به سرما در شفیره‌های سفیدة بزرگ کلم، Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، پژوهشکدة کشاورزی سازمان پژوهش‌های علمی و صنعتی ایران، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، آزمایشگاه حشره‌شناسی کاربردی. تهران، ایران،

چکیده

سفیدة بزرگ کلمPieris brassicae  از آفات مهم کلمیان ‌است که زمستان را به صورت شفیره در پناهگاه‌های مختلف به‌سر‌می‌برد. با افزایش سطح زیرکشت دانه‌های روغنی بر اهمیت این آفت در کشور افزوده شده است. با وجود این، در خصوص چگونگی زمستان‌گذرانی این آفت اطلاعات بسیار ناچیزی در دست است. لذا، در این مطالعه شفیره‌های زمستان‌گذران طی ماه‌های‌های آبان 1391 تا فروردین 1392 جمع‌آوری شد و وضعیت دیاپوزی، نقطة انجماد بدن (SCP)، میزان تحمل به دماهای پایین (10-، 15-، 20-، 25- و 30- درجة سلسیوس)، همچنین دمای کشندة 50 و 80 درصد جمعیت (Ltemp50 و (Ltemp80 مطالعه شد. نتایج نشان داد که شفیره‌ها طی سه ماه زمستان در فاز اصلی دیاپوزند و اوج سرماسختی و تحمل به دماهای پایین نیز در این سه ماه مشاهده شد. همچنین، نقطة انجماد به طور معنا‌داری در این سه ماه کاهش یافت و Ltemp50 و نقطة انجماد در این زمان بسیار به هم نزدیک شد. به این‌ترتیب مشخص شد که شفیره‌های این آفت از راهبرد اجتناب از یخ‌زدگی بهره می‌برد و دیاپوز و سرماسختی در این آفت به طور کامل بر هم منطبق است. لذا، اوج سرماسختی را در عمق دیاپوز این حشره می‌توان انتظار داشت.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Overwintering and cold tolerance in pupae of large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Maryam Atapour
Assistant Professor, Institute of Agriculture, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae, is a major pest of Brassicaceae family which overwinters as pupa on different shelters. In spite of increase in oilseed cropping area, there is little information available about its overwintering condition. In this study, overwintering pupae were collected during November 2012 to April 2013 and the diapause conditions, the whole body supercooling point (SCP), cold tolerance at subzero low temperatures (-10, -15, -20, -25 and -30°C) as well as lower lethal temperatures (Ltemp50 and Ltemp80) were investigated. The results showed that these pupae were in the main phase of diapause during three months of winter when the highest level of cold-hardiness capacity was observed. Also, the SCPs were significantly decreased and reached near to Ltemp50 at this time. Therefore, it could be concluded that these pupae use freeze avoidance strategy and there is a close linkage between diapause and cold-hardiness in this species, so, the highest level of cold tolerance could be expected during the deep phase of diapause in winter.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • large cabbage white
  • Pieris brassicae
  • Diapause
  • cold-hardiness
  • Ltemp50
 
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