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مقایسۀ واکنش انواع بهاره و پاییزۀ ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گندم نان ((Triticum aestivum در مقابل بیماری پاخورۀ گندم (Take-all disease)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان، رفسنجان

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان، رفسنجان

3 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج) رفسنجان، رفسنجان

4 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرج، تهران

چکیده

بیماری پاخوره گندم ناشی از قارچGaeumannomycs graminis var. tritici   از بیماری­های مهم گندم است که ریشه و طوقه را دچار آسیب می­کند. ارزیابی ژرم­پلاسم و شناسایی منابع مقاومت، اولین مرحله در تولید ارقام مقاوم به این بیماری است. در این بررسی 221 ژنوتیپ گندم نان، تهیه شده از نقاط مختلف ایران و خارج از کشور، در مقابل جدایه T-41 این قارچ مورد ارزیابی گلخانه­ای قرار گرفتند. صفات میزان آلودگی ریشه و طوقه (نمره بیماری)، وزن خشک بیولوژیک و ارتفاع در ژنوتیپ­های بهاره اندازه­گیری شد (از آنجایی که نیاز سرمایی ژنوتیپ­های پاییزه در گلخانه برطرف نشد، لذا ژنوتیپ­های بهاره به ساقه رفتند و ارتفاع فقط در ژنوتیپ­های بهاره اندازه­گیری شد). بر اساس میانگین نمره بیماری (Sc) ژنوتیپ­ها به 6 دسته تقسیم شدند، بر این اساس 4 ژنوتیپ کاملا مقاوم (Sc=.)، 42 ژنوتیپ مقاوم (1<Sc≤0)، 42 ژنوتیپ نیمه مقاوم (2<Sc≤1)، 70 ژنوتیپ نیمه حساس (3<Sc≤2)، 45 ژنوتیپ حساس (4<Sc≤3) و 18 ژنوتیپ کاملا حساس (5<Sc≤4) شناسایی شد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس، رگرسیون لجستیک و کای اسکوئر به خوبی تنوع ژنتیکی موجود در جمعیت را از نظر مقاومت به بیماری و رابطه بین عکس­العمل به بیماری و نوع رشد نشان داد. انواع پاییزه، نسبت به بهاره مقاومت بیش­تری داشتند. همچنین با مقایسه تیمارهای شاهد با آلوده مشخص شد که احتمالاً این بیماری سیستم دفاعی گیاه را تحریک می­کند که منجر به رشد بیشتر تیمارهای آلوده نسبت به شاهد می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison Between spring and autumn growth types of different wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes in response to Take-all disease

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mozhgan Gholizadeh Vazvani 1
  • Hossein Dashti 2
  • Roohallah Saberi Riseh 3
  • Mohammad Reza Bihamta 4
1 .Sc. Student, Department of Plant Breeding, University of Vali e Asr Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Breeding, University of Vali e Asr Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of vali e Asr Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Wheat take-all disease caused by the fungus Gaeumannomycs graminis var. tritici is an important diseases of wheat that damaged to root and crown. Evaluation of germplasm and identification of sources resistance is the first step for production of resistant varieties. In this study, 221 genotype of bread wheat, received from different location of Iran and other countries, were evaluated to take-all (T-41 isolate) in greenhouse conditions. The amount of root and crown pollution (disease score), biological dry weight and height of spring genotypes were measured (Due to the fact that winter genotypes verbalization's need didn’t meet, spring genotypes jointing and just in spring genotypes height had been measured). The genotypes were classified into six groups on the basis of mean scores. The groups are including; 4 genotypes were in highly resistant group (42 genotypes in resistant (0<Sc≤1), 42 in moderately resistant (1<Sc≤2), 70 genotypes in moderately sensitive (2<Sc≤3), 45 genotypes in sensitive (3<Sc≤4) and 18 genotypes in highly sensitive groups (4<Sc≤5). Analysis of variance, logistic regression and χ2 –square have showed a high genetic diversity to diseases resistance and its relationship with growth types (spring and winter) of wheat. Winter types were more resistant in response to take-all. The infected plants in compare to their control showed that this disease should stimulate the immune system of plants and consequently caused the more growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Resistance
  • germplasm
  • Logistic regression
  • Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici
 
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