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کنترل بیولوژیک عوامل قارچی عمدۀ پوسیدگی ریشه و طوقۀ لوبیا در استان زنجان با استفاده از باکتری‌های آنتاگونیست

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد ، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 استادیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 دانشیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

پوسیدگی ریشه و طوقۀ لوبیا ناشی از Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solaniوFusarium oxysporum  از بیماری‌های مهم لوبیا در استان زنجان است. کاربرد عوامل بیوکنترل بومی در تلفیق با روش‌های شیمیایی از روش‌های مدیریت مؤثر برای کاهش خسارات این بیماری است. به دلیل تأثیر هم‌زمان چندین قارچ در ایجاد این بیماری و امکان تأثر سینرژیستی عوامل بیماری‌زا، تأثیربخشی روش‌های مدیریتی بر آلودگی‌های هم‌زمان گیاه، حائز اهمیت و قابل بررسی است. در اوایل مردادماه 1390، جداسازی باکتری‌های آنتاگونیست از ریزوسفر گیاهان لوبیای منطقه انجام گرفت. دو جدایه از هر یک از سه گونۀ قارچی بیماری‌زا تهیه شد. دو جدایۀ رایزوباکتریایی با توانایی بالا در تولید آنتی‌بیوتیک، مواد فرار، سیانید هیدروژن و آنزیم پروتئاز علیه هر سه بیمارگر به عنوان بهترین جدایه‌ها برای آزمایش‌های گلخانه‌ای انتخاب شدند. نتایج گلخانه‌ای نشان داد که تیمار بذر با باکتری‌های آنتاگونیست اثر معناداری در کاهش شدت بیماری و افزایش شاخص‌های رشدی لوبیا در تیمارهای جداگانه و هم‌زمان قارچ‌های بیمارگر داشت. رابطۀ سینرژیستی بین هر سه بیمارگر اثبات شد. در این میان، اثر سینرژیستی بین F. oxysporumوR. solani آشکارتر بود. اثر سینرژیستی در علائم برگی آشکارتر از علائم ریشه بود.
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biological control of major fungal causal agent of root and crown rot of bean in Zanjan province with antagonistic bacteria

نویسندگان [English]

  • Afagh Faraji 1
  • Roghaye Hemmati 2
  • Alıreza Marefat 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Razi, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Root and crown rot of bean caused with Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the important diseases of bean in Zanjan province. Using native biocontrol agents integrated with chemical agents is one of the effective management strategies. This is also important to choose control methods effective against all major fungal pathogens and mixed contamination of bean, with them. This research was conducted to study synergistic effect of three major fungal pathogens and biocontrol effects of some native rhizobacteria on disease. During the mid-summer of 2011, 46 bacterial isolates were obtained from bean rhizosphere in Zanjan bean fields. Two isolates of each three fungal species (pathogenic on bean) were also received from mycology collection of Zanjan University. Two isolates of Rhizobacteria were chosen as the best biocontrol agents against all three fungi in terms of production of antibiotic, volatile metabolites, HCN and protease and selected for in-vitro antagonistic experiments. Greenhouse results showed that, seed treatment of bean with bacteria, decreased the disease and increased some vegetative factors of the plant. There was synergistic effect among the fungal species.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Synergistic effect
  • Biocontrol
  • rhizobacteria
  • fungal agent
  • Bean
 
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