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بررسی رابطۀ صفات رویشی و مقاومت به بیماری پاخوره در گندم نان در شرایط گلخانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه ولی عصر (عج) رفسنجان

2 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشگاه ولی عصر (عج) رفسنجان

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

بیماری پاخورۀ گندم با عامل (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) یکی از بیماری­های زیانبار ریشۀ گندم در سراسر جهان است. تابه‌حال رقم مقاومی نسبت به این بیماری در ذخایر توارثی (ژرم­پلاسم) گندم نان معرفی نشده است. در این بررسی 416 ژنوتیپ گندم نان، تهیه‌شده از نقاط مختلف ایران و خارج از کشور، در برابر جدایۀ T-41 این قارچ ارزیابی گلخانه­ای شدند. وزن خشک ریشه، ساقه و کل زی‌توده (بیوماس)، ارتفاع، شاخص نشانه‌های بیماری، شدت بیماری، وزن دانه در خوشه و شمار دانه در خوشه اندازه­گیری شدند. تجزیۀ واریانس صفات نشانگر اختلاف بسیار معنی­دار بین ژنوتیپ­ها بود. ژنوتیپ­های پاییزه مقاوم­تر از بهاره­ها بودند. در بعضی از ژنوتیپ­ها نظام ریشه­ای تیمارهای آلوده به‌طور شایان‌توجهی گسترش یافته بود و ریشه‌های اضافی در رویارویی با بیماری ایجادشده­ و بعضی از ژنوتیپ‌های پاییزۀ آلوده در گلخانه بدون رفع نیاز سرمایی آن‌ها به خوشه رفتند. احتمال دارد قارچ عامل بیماری سبب بهاره­سازی بعضی از ژنوتیپ­های پاییزه شده و وزن خشک ریشه همبستگی منفی و معنی­داری ***510/0-=r) با شدت بیماری داشت. ژنوتیپ­ها بر پایۀ میانگین نمرۀ بیماری به شش گروه تقسیم شدند؛ بنابراین یازده ژنوتیپ در گروه کامل مقاوم، 59 ژنوتیپ در گروه مقاوم، 64 ژنوتیپ در گروه نیمه مقاوم، 105 ژنوتیپ در گروه نیمه حساس، 104 ژنوتیپ در گروه حساس و 73 ژنوتیپ در گروه کامل حساس قرار داده شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of relationship between of vegetative traits and resistance to take-all disease in greenhouse condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mozhgan Gholizadeh Vazvani 1
  • Hossein Dashti 1
  • Rooh Allah Saberi Riseh 2
  • Mohammad Reza Bihamta 3
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University of Vali-e-Asr Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Department of Plant Protection, University of Vali-e-Asr Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Take-all disease of wheat (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) (Ggt) is one of the most destructive root diseases in the world. It has not been introduced resistant genotype against this disease. In this study, 416 genotype of bread wheat, received from different location of Iran and other countries, were evaluated to take-all (T-41 isolate) in greenhouse conditions. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, biological dry weight, amount of root and crown infection (disease score), disease index (DI), height, grain weight and number of seed were measured. Analysis of variance showed significantly different among genotypes. Winter genotypes are more resistant to take-all disease. Also in some genotypes, infected plants had root system more extensive and have produced additional roots and some infected genotypes of winter types were headed in the greenhouse without vernalization.  Probably, this fungus have vernalization effect on some winter wheat genotypes.  Root dry weight and disease index were and negatively correlated (-0.510***). The genotypes were classified into six groups on the basis of mean scores. The groups are; 11 genotypes were in highly resistant group (Sc = 0), 59 genotypes in resistant (0<Sc≤1), 64 in moderately resistant (1<Sc≤2), 105 genotypes in moderately sensitive (2<Sc≤3), 104 genotypes in sensitive (3<Sc≤4) and 73 genotypes in highly sensitive groups (4<Sc≤5).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • disease index
  • germplasm
  • Resistance
  • wheat take-all
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