c3518cb17d976b8

تأثیر رقم‌های مختلف گوجه‌فرنگی بر تنوع گونه‌ای و فعالیت دشمنان طبیعی Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). در شرایط مزرعه‌ای استان اردبیل، ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

مینوز برگ گوجه­فرنگی، Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)، یکی از آفات مهم گوجه‌فرنگی، Solanum lycopersicum L.، در ایران است. در این تحقیق تنوع گونه­ای دشمنان طبیعی مینوز برگ گوجه‌فرنگی و نسبت تراکم شکارگرها یا انگلواره (پارازیتویید)ها به تراکم تخم­ها یا لاروهای T. absoluta روی پنج رقم گوجه­فرنگی به نام­های Super Strain B، Super Chief، Mobil، Korral و Early Urbana Y در یک مزرعۀ آزمایشی در دو سال 1393 و 1394 بررسی شد. در این تحقیق، ده گونه شکارگر، چهار گونه زنبور انگلوارة لارو و یک گونه زنبور انگلوارة تخم گرد­آوری و شناسایی شدند. در بین دشمنان طبیعی، سن­های شکارگر Miridae و زنبورهای انگلوارة لارو Braconidae بیشترین درصد فراوانی نسبی را داشتند. شاخص تنوع شانون برای گونه­های دشمنان طبیعی بین پنج رقم گوجه­فرنگی اختلاف معنی‌داری را نشان نداد. میزان شاخص همانندی موریسیتا-هورن برای ترکیب گونه­ای دشمنان طبیعی بین پنج رقم­ گوجه­فرنگی در محدودۀ 932/0 تا 994/0 به دست آمد. در هر دو سال، بیشترین نسبت تراکم شکارگرها به تراکم تخم­ها و لاروهای مینوز (09/5 درصد در سال 1393 و 44/6 درصد در سال 1394)، بیشترین نسبت تراکم انگلواره‌های لاروی به تراکم لاروهای مینوز (92/3 درصد در سال 1393 و 75/3 درصد در سال 1394) و بیشترین نسبت تراکم انگلوارة تخم­ به تراکم تخم­های مینوز (67/1 درصد در هر دو سال) روی رقم Early Urbana Y ثبت شد. بنابراین می­توان نتیجه­گیری کرد که کشت رقم Early Urbana Y با افزایش نسبت تراکم شکارگرها یا انگلواره‌ها به تراکم تخم­ها و لاروهای T. absoluta می­تواند در برنامه­های مدیریت تلفیقی مینوز برگ گوجه­فرنگی در کشتزارهای گوجه‌فرنگی سودمند باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different cultivars of tomato on species diversity and efficacy of natural enemies of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under field condition in Ardabil province, Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyed Ali Asghar Fathi
Department of Plant Protection, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is one of the most important pests of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., in Iran. In this research, natural enemies diversity of T. absoluta and proportion of predators or parasitoids density to moth eggs or larvae density on five tomato cultivars including Super Strain B, Super Chief, Mobil, Korral, and Early Urbana Y were studied in an experimental field during 2014 and 2015. In this study, ten predator species, four larval parasitoid species and one egg parasitoid species were collected and identified. Amongst the natural enemies, the predatory bugs Miridae and larval parasitoids Braconidae had the highest relative abundance. The Shannon diversity index for the complex of natural enemies was not significant among the five tested cultivars. The values of Morisita–Horn index for the complex of natural enemies among the five cultivars were calculated from 0.932 to 0.994. In two years, the greatest proportion of predarors density to moth eggs and larvae density (5.09% in 2014 and 6.44% in 2015), the highest proportion of larval parasitoids density to moth larvae density (3.92% in 2014 and 3.75% in 2015), and the greatest egg parasitoid density to moth eggs density (1.67% in both studied years) were recorded on Early Urbana Y. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cultivation of Early Urbana Y with increasing of the proportion of predators or parasitoids density to T. absoluta eggs and larvae density could be useful in the integrated management programs of the tomato leafminer in tomato fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • host plants
  • natural enemies
  • Parasitism
  • predator
  • relative abundance
Altieri, M. A. & Nicholls, C. I. (2004). Biodiversity and pest management in agro-ecosystems. Food Products Press, Binghamton, New York.
Anonymous, (2013). AgriculturalStatistics; Volume I Crop production (2011-2012). Bureau for Statistics and Information Technology of Planning and Economical Division, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. (In Farsi)
Baniameri, V. & Cheraghian, A. (2011). The current status of Tuta absoluta in Iran and initial control strategies. EPPO/IOBC/FAO/NEPPO Joint International Symposium on management of Tuta absoluta (tomato borer, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in collaboration with the IRAC and IBMA. Agadir, Morocco, p. 20.
Bei-Bienko, G.Y., Blagoveshchenskii, D.I., Chernova, O.A., Dantsing, E.M., Emilianov, A.F., Kerzhner, I.M., Loginova, M.M., Martinova, E.F., Shaposhnikov, G.K., Sharov, A.G., Spuris, Z.D., Yaczewski, T.L., Yakhontov, V.V. & Zhiltsoo, L.A. (1967). Keys to the insects of the Europian USSR. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Zoological Institute.
5.       Benton, J. & Jones, J. (2007). Tomato plant culture: in the field, greenhouse, and home garden. CRC Press, Boca Raton, London.
Biondi, A., Chailleux, A., Lambion, J., Han, P., Zappala, L. & Desneux, N. (2013). Indigenous natural enemies attacking Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Southern France. Egypt Journal of Biological Pest Control, 23, 117-121.
Cabello, T., Gallego, J.R., Fernandez-Maldonado, F.J., Soler, A., Beltran, D., Parra, A. & Vila, E. (2009). The damsel bug Nabis pseudoferus (Hymenoptera: Nabidae) as a new biological control agent of the South American Tomato Pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in tomato crops of Spain. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 49, 219-22.
Cabello, T., Gallego, J.R., Fernandez, F.J., Gamez, M., Vila, E., Del Pino, M. & Hernandez, E. (2012). Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes. Journal of Economic Entomolgy, 105, 2085-2096.
Chailleux, A., Biondi, A., Han, P., Tabone, E. & Desneux, N. (2013). Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control. Journal of Economic Entomolgy, 106, 2310-2321.
Colwell, R.K. (2006). Estimates: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 8.
Desneux, N., Luna, M.G., Guillemaud, T. & Urbaneja, A. (2011). The invasive South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, continues to spread in Afro-Eurasia and beyond: the new threat to tomato world production. Journal of Pest Science, 84, 403-408.
Disney, R. H. L. (1999). Insect biodiversity and demise of alpha taxonomy. Antenna, 23, 84-88.
FAO, (2014). FAO statistical yearbooks - world food and agriculture. FAO Chief Statistician, and Director, Statistics Division, United Nations.
Garzia, G.T., Siscaro, G., Biondi, A. & Zappalà, L.Z. (2012). Tuta absoluta, a South American pest of tomato now in the EPPO region: biology, distribution and damage. EPPO Bulletin, 42, 205-210.
Gharekhani, G.H. & Salek-Ebrahimi, H. (2014). Life table parameters of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on different varieties of tomato. Journal of Economic Entomology, 107, 1765-1770.
Gianoli, E., Ramos, E., Alfaro-Tapia, A., Valdéz, Y., Echegaray, E. R. & Yábar, E. (2006). Benefits of a maize–bean–weeds mixed cropping system in Urubamba Valley, Peruvian Andes. International Journal of Pest Management, 52, 283-289.
Hansson, C. (1990). A taxonomic study on the Palaearctic species of Chrysonotomyia Ashmeadand Neochrysocharis Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Entomologica Scandinavica,21, 29-52.
Ingegno, B.L., Ferracini, C., Gallinotti, D., Alma, A. & Tavella, L. (2013). Evaluation of the effectiveness of Dicyphus errans (Wolff) as predator of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Biological Control, 67, 246-252.
Kelton, L.A. (1978). The Anthocoridae of Canada and Alaska: Heteroptera, Anthocoridae, Part 4. Agriculture Canada.
Lietti, M.M.M., Botto, E. & Alzogaray, R.A. (2005). Insecticide resistance in Argentine populations of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Neotropical Entomology, 34, 113-119.
Luna, M.G., Sanchez, N.E., Pereyra, P.C., Nieves, E., Savino, V. & Luft, E. (2012). Biological control of Tuta absoluta in Argentina and Italy: evaluation of indigenous insects as natural enemies. OEPP Bulletin, 42, 260-267.
Magalhães, S.T.V., Jham, G.N., Picanço, M.C. & Magalhães, G. (2001). Mortality of second instar larvae of Tuta absoluta produced by the hexane extract of Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum (PI134417) leaves. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3, 297-303.
Magurran, A.E. (2004). Measuring biological diversity. Oxford, Blackwell publishing.
Maluf, W.R., Silva, V.F., Cardosa, M.G., Gomes, L.A.A., Neto, A.C.G., Maciel, G.M. & Nizio, D.A.C. (2010). Resistance to the South American tomato pinworm Tuta absulata in high acylsugar and/or high zingiberene tomato genotypes. Euphytica, 176, 113-123.
Mollá, O., Biondi, A., Alonso-Valiente, M. & Urbaneja, A. (2014). A comparative life history study of two mirid bugs preying on Tuta absoluta and Ephestia kuehniella eggs on tomato crops: implications for biological control. Biocontrol, 59, 175-183.
Moraes, G.J., McMurtry, J.A., Denmark, H.A. & Campos, C.B. (2004). A revised catalog of the mite family Phytoseiidae. Zootaxa, 434, 1-494.
Muniappan, R. (2013). Tuta absoluta: the tomato leafminer. http://www.coraf.org/documents/ateliers/2013-05/tuta-absoluta/Tuta-absoluta-Presentation.pdf, Accessed August, 2015
Oliveira, C.M., Júnior, V.C.A., Maluf, W.R., Neiva, I.P. & Maciel, G.M. (2012). Resistance of tomato strains to the moth Tuta absoluta imparted by allelochemicals and trichome density. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 36, 45-52.
Pereyra, P.C. & Sanchez, N.E. (2006). Effect of two solanaceous plants on developmental and population parameters of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Neotropical Entomology, 35, 671-676.
Price, P.W. (1997). Insect ecology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.
Sanino, L. & Espinosa, B. (2010). Tuta absoluta. Guida Alla Conoscenza e Recenti Acquisizioni per Una Correta Difesa.
Sarfraz, M., Dosdall, L.M. & Keddie, B.A. (2008). Host plant genotype of the herbivore Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) affects the performance of its parasitoid Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Biological Control, 44, 42-51
SAS Institute, (1999). SAS/STAT user’s guide, version 9.1. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Shannon, C.E. & Weaver, W. (1949). A mathematical model of communication. Urbana, IL:  University of Illinois Press.
Siqueira, H.A.A., Guedes, R.N.C., Fragoso, D.B. & Magalhaes, L.C. (2001). Abamectin resistance and synergism in Brazilian populations of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 47, 247-251.
Siqueira, H.A.A., Guedes, R.N.C. & Picanço, M.C. (2000). Insecticide resistance in populations of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 2, 147-153.
Sohrabi, F. & Hosseini, R. (2015). Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae), a predatory species of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 55, 322-323.
Sohrabi, F., Lotfalizadeh, H. & Salehipour, H. (2014). Report of a larval parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) from Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 54, 306- 307.
Tobias, V. I. (1995). Keys of the insects of the European part of the USSR, Vol. 3, Hymenoptera. Science Publishers, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
Urbaneja, A., Montón, H. & Mollá, O. (2009). Suitability of the tomato borer Tuta absoluta as prey for Macrolophus caliginosus and Nesidiocoris tenuis. Journal of Applied Entomology, 133, 292–296.
Van Emden, H.F. (1986). Interaction of plant resistance and natural enemies: effects on populations of sucking insects. In: Boethel, D.J. & Eikenbary, R.D. (eds.), Interactions of plant resistance and parasitoids and predators of insects. Ellis Horwood Ltd, Publisher.
Wearing, C.H, Colhoun, K., Attfield, B. & Marshall, R.R. (2011). Diversity of natural enemies in Central Otago, New Zealand apple orchards: a practical measure of sustainability in pest management? Biocontrol Science and Technology, 21, 1273-1296.
Zappala, L., Biondi, A., Alma, A., Al-Jboory, I.J., Arno, J., Bayram, A. & Desneux, N. (2013). Natural enemies of the South American moth, Tuta absoluta, in Europe, North Africa and Middle East, and their potential use in pest control strategies. Journal of Pest Science, 86, 635-647.
Zhang, J., Zheng, X., Jian, H., Qin, X., Yuan, F. & Zhang, R. (2013). Arthropod biodiversity and community structures of organic rice ecosystems in Guangdong province, China. Florida Entomologist, 96, 1-9.