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تأثیر گیاه‌سوزی باقی‌ماندۀ برخی از علف‌کش‌های مورداستفاده در شالیزار بر شاهی و کاهو

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

یکی از اقدام‌های لازم پیش از کشت گیاهان زراعی دوم، بینش کافی درزمینۀ تأثیر باقی‌ماندۀ علف‌کش‌های مصرف‌شده در کشت گیاه زراعی اصلی بر رشد گیاهان زراعی کشت ‌دوم است. این آزمایش به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر بازدارندگی احتمالی باقی‌ماندۀ برخی علف‌کش‌های انتخابی برنج برکشت شاهی و کاهو به‌عنوان محصولات غالب کشت ‌دوم انجام شد. عامل‌های آزمایش شامل علف‌کش‌های رایج شالیزار (تیوبنکارب، بوتاکلر، اکسادیارژیل، بن‌سولفورون‌متیل و مصرف نکردن علف‌کش (شاهد) و گیاهان محک (کاهو و شاهی)) بودند. علف‌کش‌های یادشده بنا بر عرف منطقه در کشت نشایی برنج مصرف و پس از برداشت برنج، آزمایش‌های زیست‌سنجی با استفاده از خاک شالیزارهای بالا در شرایط گلدانی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر بازدارندگی باقی‌ماندۀ علف‌کش‌ها بسته به نوع گیاه کشت ‌دوم و نوع علف‌کش مصرفی شالیزار متفاوت بود. ریشۀ گیاهان محک در مقایسه با اندام‌های هوایی حساسیت بیشتری به باقی‌ماندۀ علف‌کش‌ها نشان دادند. بوتاکلر کمترین (9درصد≤) و اکسادیارژیل بیشترین (60درصد≤) میزان بازدارندگی بر گیاهان محک را داشت و علف‌کش‌های بن‌سولفورون‌متیل و تیوبنکارب نیز از لحاظ آماری تأثیر بازدارندگی همسان اکسادیارژیل بر ریشۀ گیاهان محک موردبررسی داشت. بر پایۀ نتایج این آزمایش، رشد گیاهان شاهی و کاهو به‌عنوان کشت‌ دوم در شالیزار می‌تواند به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تأثیر منفی باقی‌ماندۀ برخی از علف‌کش‌های شالیزار مانند اکسادیارژیل، بن‌سولفورون‌متیل و تیوبنکارب قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Residual phytotoxic effect of some paddy herbicides on the growth of cress and lettuce

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bijan Yaghoubi 1
  • Akbar Yasami 2
  • Hashem Aminpanah 2
1 Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the crucial issues before the second cropping is having enough knowledge about the residue effect of first crop herbicides on second crops. This experiment was conducted to investigate the possible inhibitory effect of some selective paddy herbicides residues to second cropping. Experimental factors were included common paddy herbicides (thiobencarb, butachlor, oxadiargyl, bensulfuronmethyl, and non- herbicide control) and test plants (lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cress (Lepidium sativum L.)). At first, herbicides were applied in paddy field and bioassay was carried out by using the soils of plots treated with those herbicides and test plants. Results showed that, in general, residual effect of paddy herbicides on the growth of second crops was different depending on plant type and herbicide. Compared with aerial parts, roots of the plants tested were more sensitive to residual herbicides. Butachlor showed the least (≤9%) and oxadiargyl the most (≥60%) inhibition on test plants, and bensulfuronmethyl and thiobencarb also had statistically similar inhibitory effect on the roots of the test plants. Based on results of this study, the growth of lettuce and cress as second crops in paddy fields could be significantly reduced by the residue of some paddy herbicides including thiobencarb, oxadiargy and Bensulfuronmethyl.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • bensulfuronmethyl
  • bioassay
  • Butachlor
  • oxadiargyl
  • thiobencarb
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