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ساختار ژنتیکی جمعیت‌های قارچ Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s. l.، عامل خشکیدگی سرشاخه‌های درختان مرکبات در شمال ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه قارچ‌شناسی و بیماری‌های قارچی گیاهان دانشگاه گیلان و پژوهشکدة مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، رامسر

2 گروه قارچ‌شناسی و بیماری‌های قارچی گیاهان، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

4 گروه قارچ‌شناسی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان

5 گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، پژوهشکدة مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، رامسر

چکیده

خشکیدگی سرشاخه‌ها و ریزش میوه پس از گلدهی ناشی از قارچ Colletotrichum gloeosporioides، از چالش‌های شایع تولید محصول در درختان مرکبات منطقۀ شمال کشور هستند. به علت افزایش آسیب و زیان بیماری در سال‌های اخیر که می‌تواند ناشی از تغییرپذیری ژنتیکی بیمارگر باشد، ساختار ژنتیکی این قارچ در جمعیت‌های شمال کشور بررسی شد. بدین منظور از چهارباغ در چهار منطقۀ رحیم‌آباد گیلان، رامسر، ساری و گرگان بازدید و نمونه‌های دارای نشانه‌های آلودگی درختان مرکبات گرد‌آوری شد. پس از شناسایی جدایه‌ها، انگشت‌نگاری DNA برای 144 جدایۀ قارچ با استفاده از هفت نشانگر ISSR به روش PCR انجام و شاخص‌های مربوط به تنوع ژنتیکی محاسبه شدند. تجزیۀ خوشه‌ای بر پایۀ ضریب همسانی جاکارد و روش UPGMA جدایه‌ها را در سیزده گروه قرار داد. میانگین تنوع ژنی و ژنوتیپی کل جمعیت‌ها به ترتیب برابر 33/0 و 49/0 محاسبه شد. میانگین تمایز ژنتیکی کم بین جمعیت‌ها (127/0)، توسط میزان جریان ژنی زیاد حاصل از نشانگرها (437/3) تأیید شد. بیشترین همانندی ژنتیکی بین دو جمعیت‌ گیلان و گرگان و کمترین آن بین دو جمعیت رامسر و ساری مشاهده شد. بنابراین فاصلۀ ژنتیکی بین نمونه‌های مرکبات رحیم‌آباد و رامسر و بین نمونه‌های رامسر و ساری با توجه به مسافت کمتر رحیم‌آباد تا رامسر نسبت به فاصلۀ رامسر تا ساری منطقی بود ولی نمونه‌های گیلان و گرگان در این رابطه روند غیرمعمول داشتند. بنا بر این تحقیق، جمعیت‌های
C. gloeosporioides مرکبات شمال کشور تنوع ژنتیکی دارند و پایین بودن میزان تمایز ژنتیکی و فاصلۀ ژنتیکی بین جمعیت‌ها مؤید وجود جریان ژنی بالا بین این جمعیت‌ها است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Genetic structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. populations, the causal agent of citrus anthracnose in North of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Taheri 1
  • Mohammad Javan Nikkhah 2
  • Seyed Ali Elahinia 3
  • Seyed Akbar Khodaparast 4
  • Morteza Golmohammadi 5
1 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture Guilan University and Iran Citrus Research Institute, Ramsar, Iran
2 Department of Plant Pathology, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Guilan University, Iran
4 Department of Mycology, College of Agriculture, Guilan University, Iran
5 Department of Plant Pathology, Iran Citrus Research Institute, Ramsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Citrus dieback and postbloom fruit drop caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides are common diseases of citrus trees in North of Iran. According to increasing of disease damage in recent years, which can be due to the genetical alteration of pathogen, genetic structure of the fungus population in North of Iran was studied. So, four citrus orchards in Rahim Abad (Guilan), Ramsar, Sari and Gorgan were surveyed and. symptomatic tissues were sampled. After identification of fungal Isolates, DNA fingerprinting for144 Isolates were done by seven ISSR markers and PCR method. Acording to cluster analyses by UPGMA method and Jacard coeficient, thirteen groups were found. The mean of gene and genotype diversities across all populations were 0.33 and 0.49 respectively. There were low genetic differentiation (0.127) among populations and high gene flow (3.437) proved the low genetic differentiation. Maximum genetic identity observed between Guilan and Gorgan and the minimum observed between Ramsar and Sari populations. Distance between Rahim Abad and Ramsar is less than between Ramsar and Sari. So, genetic distance between Guilan and Ramsar and between Ramsar and Sari populations correlated to their geographical distance, but it was irregular for Guilan and Gorgan isolates. According to this study C. gloeosporioides populations derived from citrus orchards in North of Iran have genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation and Genetic distance among populations confirm the high gene flow among them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cluster Analysis
  • DNA fingerprinting
  • gene diversity
  • Gene flow
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