ترجیح غذایی و سوئیچینگ کنۀ شکارگر Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) روی سفید بالک گلخانه و کنۀ تارتن دولکه‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


گروه گیاهپزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج


سفید بالک گلخانه و کنۀ تارتن دولکه­ای از جمله مهم‌ترین آفاتی هستند که به انواع گیاهان و محصولات گلخانه­ای را حمله می­کنند. کنۀAmblyseius swirskii  یک شکارگر عمومی است که می­تواند از هر دو این آفات تغذیه کند. در این بررسی میزان تغذیۀ این کنۀ شکارگر از مراحل مختلف رشدی هر یک از دوی آفت و ترجیح شکارگر بین مراحل مختلف رشدی هر یک از آفات و همچنین ترجیح غذایی و رفتار سوئیچینگ کنۀ A. swirskii بین مرحلۀ مرجح کنۀ تارتن دولکه‌ای و سفید بالک گلخانه در شرایط آزمایشگاهی (دمای ºC 1±25، رطوبت نسبی 10±70% و دورۀ نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی) بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که پوره­های سن‌های پایین سفید بالک گلخانه نسبت به دیگر مراحل رشدی این آفت و مراحل متحرک کنۀ تارتن دولکه­ای، نسبت به مرحلۀ تخم ترجیح داده شدند. مقایسۀ میانگین شاخص بتای منلی در آزمایش ترجیح کنۀشکارگر بین پوره­های سن‌های پایین سفید بالک گلخانه و مرحلۀ پروتونمف کنۀ تارتن دولکه­ای نشان‌دهندۀ ترجیح کنۀ شکارگر برای کنۀ تارتن دولکه­ای نسبت به سفید بالک گلخانه است. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از بررسی سوئیچینگ نشان داد که تغییر نسبت سفید بالک گلخانه و کنۀ تارتن دولکه­ای منجر به تغییر خطی مقدار β نمی­شود و رفتار سوئیچینگ در این شکارگر وجود ندارد. به‌عبارت‌دیگر بدون توجه به فراوانی نسبی کنۀ تارتن دولکه­ای و سفید بالک گلخانه، کنۀ شکارگر کنۀ تارتن دولکه­ای را به سفید بالک گلخانه ترجیح می‌دهد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Prey preference and switching behavior of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on greenhouse whitefly and two-spotted spider mite

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samira Heydari
  • Hossein Allahyari
  • Azade Zahedi Golpayegani
Department of Plant Protection, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Greenhouse whitefly and two-spotted spider mite are two important pests on greenhouse crops. The polyphagous predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii preys on both of these pests. In this research, predation of the predatory mite on different stages of both pests, prey stage preference of pests, prey preference and switching behavior of predator between preferred stage of greenhouse whitefly and two-spotted spider mite were investigated in laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 16L: 8D hour photoperiod). The preference index for each experiment was calculated by Manly’s β index. Results showed that, young instars (first and second instars) of greenhouse whitefly and non-sessile stages of spider mites (larvae, protonymph and deuonymph) were preferred stages. Comparison of the mean preference index between young instars of greenhouse whitefly and protonymphs of two-spotted spider mite showed that this predator showed a significant preference to T. urticae. The variation in different ratio of preys had no effect on predatory mite preference so switching didn’t observed in A. swirskii.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Manly’s β index
  • predatory mite no-choice
  • Trialeurodes vaporariorum
  • Tetranychus urticae
  1. Blackwood, J., Schausberger, P. & Croft, B. (2001). Prey-stage preference in generalist and specialist phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) when offered Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) eggs and larvae. Environmental Entomology, 30, 1103-1111.
  2. Buitenhuis, R., Shipp, L. & Scott-Dupree, C. (2010). Intra-guild vs extra-guild prey: effect on predator fitness and preference of Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 100, 167-173.
  3. Calvo, F., Bolckmans, K. & Belda, J. (2011). Control of Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis in cucumber by Amblyseius swirskii. Biocontrol, 56, 185-192.
  4. Carrillo, D. & Peña, J. E. (2012). Prey-stage preferences and functional and numerical responses of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 57, 361-372.
  5. Ebadzade, H., Mohammadnia Afrozi, S., Abbas Taleghani, R., Saadat Akhgar, A., Moradi Eslami, A., Abbasi, M. & Yari, S. (2013). Agriculture statistics, 82-83, from http://www.maj.ir/Portal/File/ShowFile.aspx?ID=6f66d3e3-0884-4823-b12d-6319a2edad84
  6. Enkegaard, A., Brødsgaard, H. F. & Hansen, D. L. (2001). Macrolophus caliginosus: functional response to whiteflies and preference and switching capacity between whiteflies and spider mites. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 101, 81-88.
  7. El‐Laithy, A. & Fouly, A. (1992). Life table parameters of the two phytoseiid predators Amblyseius scutalis (Athias‐Henriot) and A. swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari, Phytoseiidae) in Egypt. Journal of Applied Entomology, 113, 8-12.
  8. Evans, E. W., Stevenson, A. T. & Richards, D. R. (1999). Essential versus alternative foods of insect predators: benefits of a mixed diet. Oecologia, 121, 107-112.
  9. Flechtmann, C. H. & McMurtry, J. A. (1992). Studies on how phytoseiid mites feed on spider mites and pollen. International Journal of Acarology, 18, 157-162.
  10. Houck, M. (1986). Prey preference in Stethorus punctum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environmental Entomology, 15, 967-970.
  11. Jaworski, C. C., Bompard, A., Genies, L., Amiens-Desneux, E. & Desneux, N. (2013). Preference and prey switching in a generalist predator attacking local and invasive alien pests. Plos One, 8(12), 1-10.
  12. Jervis, M. A. (2005). Insects as natural enemies. Springer, Wales.
  13. Lucas, É., Coderre, D. & Vincent, C. (1997). Voracity and feeding preferences of two aphidophagous coccinellids on Aphis citricola and Tetranychus urticae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 85, 151-159.
  14. MacRae, I. V. & Croft, B. A. (1997). Intra-and interspecific predation by adult female Metaseiulus occidentalis and Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) when provisioned with varying densities and ratios of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and phytoseiid larvae. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 21(4), 235-246.
  15. Mcmurtry, J.A., De Moraes, G.J. & Sourassou, N.F. (2013). Revision of the lifestyles of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and implications for biological control strategies. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 18, 297-320.
  16. Messelink, G. J., Van Maanen, R., Van Holstein-Saj, R., Sabelis, M. W. & Janssen, A. (2010). Pest species diversity enhances control of spider mites and whiteflies by a generalist phytoseiid predator. Biocontrol, 55, 387-398.
  17. Messelink, G.J. & Jansen, A. (2008) Do whiteflies help controlling thrips? IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 32, 131-134.
  18. Messelink, G. J., van Maanen, R., van Steenpaal, S. E. & Janssen, A. (2008). Biological control of thrips and whiteflies by a shared predator: two pests are better than one. Biological Control, 44, 372-379.
  19. Messelink, G. J., Van Steenpaal, S. E. & Ramakers, P. M. (2006). Evaluation of phytoseiid predators for control of western flower thrips on greenhouse cucumber. Biocontrol, 51, 753-768.
  20. Murdoch, W.W. (1969). Switching in general predators: experiments on predator specificity and stability of prey populations. Ecological Monographs, 39, 335-354.
  21. Murdoch, W.W. & Marks, J. (1973). Predation by coccinellid beetles: experiments on switching. Ecology, 160-167.
  22. Nauen, R., Stumpf, N., Elbert, A., Zebitz, C.P.W. & Kraus, W. (2001). Acaricide toxicity and resistance in larvae of different strains of Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae). Pest Management Science, 57, 253-261.
  23. Nomikou, M., Janssen, A., Schraag, R. & Sabelis, M. (2001). Phytoseiid predators as potential biological control agents for Bemisia tabaci. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 25, 271-291.
  24. Nomikou, M., Janssen, A., Schraag, R. & Sabelis, M. W. (2002). Phytoseiid predators suppress populations of Bemisia tabaci on cucumber plants with alternative food. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 27, 57-68.
  25. Oaten, A. & Murdoch, W.W. (1975). Switching, functional response, and stability in predator-prey systems. American Naturalist, 299-318.
  26. Park, Y.-L. & Lee, J.-H. (2005). Impact of two­spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on growth and productivity of glasshouse cucumbers. Journal of Economic Entomology, 98, 457-463.
  27. Popov, S.Y. & Kondryakov, A. (2008). Reproductive tables of predatory phytoseiid mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis, Galendromus occidentalis, and Neoseiulus cucumeris). Entomological Review, 88, 658-665.
  28. Pratt, P., Rosetta, R. & Croft, B. (2002). Plant-related factors influence the effectiveness of Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a biological control agent of spider mites on landscape ornamental plants. Journal of Economic Entomology, 95, 1135-1141.
  29. Shishebor, P. (2002). Whiteflies: their bionomics, pest status and management. Shahid Chamran Ahvaz University.
  30. Symondson, W., Sunderland, K. & Greenstone, M. (2002). Can generalist predators be effective biocontrol agents? 1. Annual Review of Entomology, 47, 561-594.
  31. van Houten, Y.M., Hoogerbrugge, H. & Bolckmans, K.J. (2007). Spider mite control by four phytoseiid species with different degrees of polyphagy. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin, 30, 123-128.
  32. van Maanen, R. & Janssen, A. (2008). Prey preference of the generalist predator Amblyseius swirskii. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin, 32, 241.
  33. Xiao, Y. & Fadamiro, H.Y. (2010). Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predacious mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae). Biological Control, 53, 345-352.
  34. Xu, X. & Enkegaard, A. (2010). Prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii between first instar western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and nymphs of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Journal of Insect Science, 10, 149.
  35. Zaher, M. & Shehata, K.K. (1971). Biological studies on the predator mite Typhlodromus pyri Sch. (Acarina Phytoseiidae) with the effect of prey and non-prey substances. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 67, 389-394.