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تأثیر کشت سیب‌زمینی در مجاورت یونجه‌زار بر تنوع و فراوانی شکارگرهای خاکزی و تراکم Leptinotarsa decemlineata در منطقة اردبیل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دورة دکتری، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 استاد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

سوسک کلرادوی سیب‌زمینی، Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Col.: Chrysomelidae)، مهم‌ترین آفت برگ‌خوار گیاه سیب‌زمینی در ایران است. در این پژوهش تنوع گونه‌ای و فراوانی شکارگرهای خاکزی و تراکم تخم‌ها، لاروها و حشرات کامل سوسک کلرادوی سیب‌زمینی در ردیف‌های سیب‌زمینی واقع در فاصله‌های 5، 10، 15 و 20 متری از یونجه‌زار (در کشتزار سیب‌زمینی مجاور یونجه‌زار) به همراه شاهد (کشتزار سیب‌زمینی تنها) در منطقة اردبیل در دو سال 1393 و 1394 بررسی شد. در این تحقیق، در کشتزار سیب‌زمینی شاهد هشت گونه شکارگر خاکزی و در کشتزار سیب‌زمینی مجاور یونجه‌زار چهارده گونه شکارگر خاکزی با استفاده از تله‌های گودالی گرد‌آوری و شناسایی شدند که در بین آن‌ها عنکبوت‌ها و سوسک‌های خانوادة Carabidae فراوانی بیشتری داشتند. شاخص تنوع شانون (H’) برای شکارگرهای خاکزی در هر یک از ردیف‌های سیب‌زمینی واقع در 5، 10، 15 و 20 متری از یونجه‌زار (در کشتزار سیب‌زمینی مجاور یونجه‌زار) به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از کشتزار سیب‌زمینی شاهد بود. در هر دو سال، فراوانی عنکبوت‌ها و سوسک‌های خانوادة Carabidae با افزایش فاصلة ردیف‌های سیب‌زمینی از یونجه‌زار به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. در مقابل، تراکم تخم‌ها، لاروها و حشرات کامل سوسک کلرادوی سیب‌زمینی با افزایش فاصلة ردیف‌های سیب‌زمینی از یونجه‌زار افزایش یافت. بنابراین، می‌توان به کشاورزان توصیه کرد که از کشت نواری سیب‌زمینی و یونجه (با عرض نوارهای سیب‌زمینی بیشینه تا 10 متر) در برنامه‌های مدیریت تلفیقی سوسک کلرادوی سیب‌زمینی استفاده کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of potato cultivation in the vicinity of the alfalfa field on diversity and abundance of terrestrial predators, and density of Leptinotarsa decemlineata in Ardabil region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pejman Tajmiri 1
  • Seyed Ali Asghar Fathi 2
  • Ali Golizadeh 2
  • Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani 3
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Col.: Chrysomelidae) is the most important phytophagous pest of potato in Iran. In this research, diversity and abundance of terrestrial predators, and density of Colorado potato beetle eggs, larvae and adults were studied in potato rows located at 5, 10, 15, and 20 m from the alfalfa field (in the potato field adjacent to the alfalfa field) along with the control (the sole potato field) in Ardabil region during 2014 and 2015. In this study, eight terrestrial predator species in the control potato field and fourteen terrestrial predator species in the potato field adjacent to the alfalfa field were collected using pitfall trap and identified, amongst which spiders and carabid beetles had more relative abundance. The Shannon diversity index (H’) for terrestrial predators in the potato rows located at 5, 10, 15, and 20 m from the alfalfa field (in the potato field adjacent to the alfalfa field) was significantly higher than in the control potato field. During two years, the abundance of spiders and Carabid beetles decreased with increasing distance of the potato rows from the alfalfa field. Moreover, the density of Colorado potato beetle eggs, larvae and adults increased with increasing distance of the potato rows from the alfalfa field. Therefore, use of the strip cropping of potato and alfalfa (with 10 m of the potato strips width) could be recommended to the farmers in the integrated management of Colorado potato beetle.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alfalfa field
  • Colorado potato beetle
  • predators
  • species abundance
  • species diversity
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