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پایش و کنترل شیمیایی سرخرطومی‌های ساقه‌خوار کلزا Ceutorhynchus spp. (Col.: Curculionidae)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مازندران، ساری

چکیده

با هدف پایش سرخرطومی‌های ساقه‌خوار کلزا Ceutorhynchus spp. به‌منظور تعیین بهترین زمان مبارزه و تأثیر چند حشره‌کش روی آن‌ها، این پژوهش در سال زراعی 91-1390 در ساری اجرا شد. برای پایش آفت از تله‌های آبی زردرنگ استفاده شد. تأثیر حشره‌کش‌های کلرپیریفوس EC40.8%، ایمیداکلوپرید SC35%، دیازینونEC60%  و فنیتروتیون EC50% به ترتیب به میزان 2، 1، 5/1 و 1 لیتر در هکتار، به انضمام تیمار شاهد در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با پنج تیمار و چهار تکرار ارزیابی شد. یک روز پیش، 5، 14 و 21 روز پس از سم‌پاشی چهار بوته از هر کرت کنده و شمار لارو درون بافت گیاه شمارش شد. یک هفته پیش از برداشت محصول، شمار غلاف‌های سالم(HP)  و عقیم  (BS)روی سه بوته از هر کرت شمارش شدند. 1 مترمربع از هر کرت برداشت، عملکرد و وزن هزاردانه(TKW)  محاسبه شد. نخستین سرخرطومی‌ها در 11 آبان، اوج پرواز در نهم آذر و آخرین آن‌ها در اوایل دی‌ماه مشاهده شدند. تخم‌ریزی از اوایل آذر آغاز و در نیمة آذر به اوج خود رسید. درصد کارایی حشره‌کش‌ها در 14 روز پس از سم‌پاشی به ترتیب 51/6±89/88، 61/9±57/57، 6±20/83 و 13/6±82/91 بود، که به ترتیب باعث افزایش TKW به میزان 8/0، 4/0، 48/0 و 43/0 گرم و افزایش عملکرد به میزان 5/115، 2/68، 5/79 و 8/62 گرم نسبت به شاهد شدند. شمار HP و BS در تیمارهای حشره‌کش به­ترتیب 63/11±17/77، 93/1±58/43، 10/9±44، 06/7±75/44 عدد و 29/0±50/4، 98/0±75/8، 42/1±25/13 و 54/3±33/18 عدد بود که این شمار در شاهد به­ترتیب 35/3±75/31 و 76/2±83/14 بود. کلرپیریفوس، با  درصد کارایی مناسب، بیشترین میزان عملکرد، TKW و HP و کمترین BS را داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Monitoring and chemical control of canola stem-borer weevils Ceutorhynchus spp. (Col.: Curculionidae)

نویسنده [English]

  • Hassan Barari
Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to monitor canola stem borer weevils, Ceutorhynchus spp., determining the appropriate time for control, and investigate the efficacy of insecticides, this research was conducted in a RCBD with five treatments and four replicates in Sari during 2011-2012. Yellow water traps were used for monitoring the pest. The treatments were a) chlorpyrifos EC40.8% (2 l/ha), b) imidacloprid SC35% (1 l/ha), c) diazinon EC60% (1.5 l/ha), d) fenitrothion EC50% (1 l/ha) and e) control. Four plants per plot were collected 1 day before and 5, 14, and 21 days after treatment and the pest larvae were counted. One week prior to harvesting, the numbers of healthy pods (HP) and blind stalks (BS) on three plants per plot were counted. 1 m2 of the crop per plot was harvested, and the yield and thousand kernel weight (TKW) were measured. First and last weevils were caught in early November and late December, respectively and its peak occurred in late November. Oviposition began in late November and its peak occurred in early December. The efficacies of the treatments a, b, c and d at 14 days after treatment were 88.89±6.51, 57.57±9.61, 83.20±6.00, and 91.82±6.13 percentage, respectively. Compared to ghe control, TKW and yield increase in a, b, c, d were 0.8, 0.4, 0.48, and 0.43 g; 115.5, 68.2, 79.5, and 62.8 g, respectively. HP and BS in a, b, c, d and e were 77.17±11.63, 43.58±1.93, 44±9.10, 44.75±7.06 and 31.75±3.35; 4.50±0.29, 8.75±0.98, 13.25±1.42, 18.33±3.54 and 14.83±2.76, respectively. Chlorpyrifos with appropriate efficacy, had the highest yield, TKW, HP and the smallest BS.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorpyrifos
  • control
  • diazinon
  • fenitrothion
  • imidacloprid
  • oilseed rape pest
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