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تأثیر فرآیند درجه‌بندی بر گسترش بیماری‌های پس از برداشت پرتقال تامسون ناول

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران و پژوهشگر، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان

4 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر مراحل مختلف فرآیند درجه‌بندی (سورتینگ) میوه‌ها بر گسترش بیماری‌های پس از برداشت پرتقال، تحقیقی در قالب دو آزمایش مستقل صورت پذیرفت. در آزمایش نخست، نمونه‌گیری از میوه‌ها در هنگام ورود به کارگاه (شاهد) و پس از پایان هر یک از مراحل شامل شستشو با غوطه‌وری در آب، شستشو با آبفشان آب گرم حاوی قارچ‌کش، واکس‌زنی، درجه‌بندی، همچنین با حذف مرحلة شستشو با آبفشان آب گرم حاوی قارچ‌کش از دو مرحلة پایانی فرآیند (واکس‌زنی، درجه‌بندی) انجام گرفت. میزان پوسیدگی میوه‌ها در سه مرحله (7، 14 و 21 روز نگهداری در اتاقک رشد با شرایط مناسب برای رشد عامل‌های پوسیدگی) ارزیابی شد. در آزمایش دوم میوه‌های شاهد و محصول نهایی فرآیند درجه‌بندی (پرتقال واکس‌خورده در دو حالت استفاده و بدون استفاده از آب‌گرم حاوی قارچ‌کش) به مدت 45 روز در سردخانه قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که بیماری‌های کپک سبز، کپک آبی و پوسیدگی ترش بیماری‌های شایع پرتقال است. اختلاف معنی‌دار آماری بین تیمار درجه‌بندی در دو حالت استفاده و بدون استفاده از آب‌گرم حاوی قارچ‌کش مشاهده نشد (05/0≥P). تیمار شاهد با 5/9، 3/33 و 3/33 درصد رخداد کل بیماری‌ها، به ترتیب طی مراحل ارزیابی 7، 14 و 21 روز، کمترین میزان را در بین تیمارها داشت. در آزمایش دوم نیز میزان رخداد بیماری به‌طور معنی‌داری (05/0≥P) در میوه‌های شاهد کمتر از دو تیمار دیگر بود. به‌طورکلی فرآیند درجه‌بندی، در وضعیت کنونی، موجب افزایش بیماری‌های پس از برداشت شده و آب گرم حاوی قارچ‌کش و واکس نتوانسته‌اند که میزان پوسیدگی ایجادشده در نتیجة فرآیند درجه‌بندی را کاهش دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of sorting on orange (Thomson navel) post-harvest diseases expansion

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hosssein Razzaghi 1
  • Siamak Kalantari 2
  • Mohammad Ali Aghajani 3
  • Ali Reza Qodsevali 4
1 Ph. D. Student, Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran and Researcher, Department of Agricultural Engineering Research, Golestan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Golestan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering Research, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of different stages of sorting line on the development of orange post-harvest disease, two independent experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, fruit sampling was done upon arrival at the workshop (control) and after imposing each sorting line stage included washing with water immersion, washing with fungicide-containing hot water, waxing, sorting, as well as the elimination washing with hot water containing fungicides from the last two levels of the sorting stage (waxing, sorting). The fruit decay was assessed in three phases (7, 14 and 21 days after keeping the fruits at germinator). In the second experiment, the control fruit and final product of sorting (waxed oranges washed and unwashed with fungicide-containig hot water) were kept for 45 days in cold storage. The results showed that green mold, blue mold, and sour rot are the common diseases in the oranges. No significant difference was observed between the sorting treatments in the two modes of washed and unwashed with fungicide containing hot water. Further, more the percent of disease incidence and mean the disease severity increased over the time. Control treatments had 5.9, 33.3 and 33.3 percent of disease incidence in 7, 14 and 21 days evaluation steps, respectively. In the second experiment, the disease incidence was significantly lower in control compared to the other two treatments. In conclusion, it can be stated that sorting, as it is, increases post-harvest diseases and the rate of fruits decay cannot be reduced by using hot water containing fungicide and wax.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • green mold
  • blue mold
  • incidence
  • mean disease severity index
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