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کنترل پسیل گلابی Cacopsylla pyricola با روش تزریق آزادیراکتین و کود کامل به تنة درخت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه آزاد تاکستان، قزوین، ایران

2 دانشیار، مؤسسة تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشگاه آزاد تاکستان، قزوین، ایران

4 مربی، مؤسسة تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پسیل گلابی  Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Hemiptera: psyllidae)یکی از مهم‌ترین آفت‌های درختان گلابی در ایران و جهان بوده و کنترل شیمیایی متداول‌ترین روش کنترل آن است. امروزه روش تزریق سموم یکی از روش‌های فنی و مؤثر در کنترل آفات مکنده به شمار می‌رود. هدف این تحقیق ارزیابی تأثیر کود کامل و مخلوط آن با آزادیراکتین به روش تزریق روی پسیل گلابی است. این آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تیمار که شامل تزریق کود کامل (ناترینو)، تزریق مخلوط آزادیراکتین و کود کامل (ناترینو)، سم‌پاشی شاخ و برگ با دیازینون EC 60 درصد با غلظت 5/1 در هزار و آب‌پاشی شاخ و برگ (شاهد) با پنج تکرار در باغ مهرشهر نزدیک شهر کرج روی درختان گلابی رقم شاه‌میوه در سال 93 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که تراکم پوره و تخم پسیل گلابی در تیمارهای تزریقی نسبت به محلول‌پاشی با دیازینون به‌طور معنی‌داری کمتر است، به‌طوری‌که در آخر فصل میانگین کارایی تیمارهای تزریق کود کامل، تزریق کود و آزادیراکتین و سم‌پاشی دیازینون به ترتیب 91، 85 و 28 درصد بود همچنین در این زمان میزان عسلک روی برگ‌ها در محلول­پاشی و آب‌پاشی دو برابر بیشتر از تیمارهای تزریقی بود. افزون بر این وزن، قطر و طول میوه‌های گلابی اندازه‌گیری شده نیز نشان داد که کمیت‌های مورد اشاره در تیمارهای تزریقی20-10درصد بیشتر از محلول‌پاشی با دیازینون و شاهد است. بنابر نتایج به‌دست‌آمده استفاده از روش تزریق به تنة درخت در مقایسه با روش محلول‌پاشی می‌تواند کاهش معنی‌داری را در میزان مصرف آفت‌کش‌ به ازای هر درخت ایجاد کند. همچنین نتایج به‌دست‌آمده تأثیر معنی‌دار و مثبت کاربرد کودهای کامل را در جهت افزایش مقاومت القایی درختان گلابی به پسیل گلابی تائید می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola by trunk injection of azadirachtin and complete fertilizer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hoda Ardestanirostami 1
  • Aziz Sheikhigarjan 2
  • Abbas Arbab 3
  • Mehran Javadzadeh 4
1 Former M. Sc. Student, Takestan Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Takestan Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
4 Instructor, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Pear psylla is one of the most important pests of the pear trees in the world and Iran and the chemical control is the leading control method against it. Recently pesticide injection has become an effective and special control method against the sucking pests. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of complete fertilizer and its mixture with azadirachtin by injection against pear psylla. The experiment was conducted on pear trees var. Shah Miveh in Mehrshahr orchard near Karaj city with 4 treatments and 5 replications in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in 2014. Treatments included injection of complete fertilizer (Nutreeno®), alone and mixed with azadiractin, foliage application with diazinon EC 60% at the concentration 1.5 ml/L and control (spraying water). The results showed that the densities of psylla eggs and nymphs in the injected treatments were less than spraying. The treatment efficacies of diazinon, Nutreeno alone and mixture with azadirachtin were 28, 91, and 85% in the last season, respectively and the amount of honeydew per leaf in the sprayed treatment was twice more than the injection. Physical aspects of pear fruits, including weight, diameter and length of the fruits in both injected treatments were 10-20% more than the conventional application. According to this study results, trunk injection can reduce the amount of used insecticides per tree and also the usage of organic fertilizers can increase induced resistance of plants against pear psylla.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Honeydew
  • Induced resistance
  • organic insecticide
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