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بررسی برخی ویژگی‌های بیوکنترلی باکتری‌های آنتاگونیست جداشده از ریزوسفر خیار علیة Sclerotinia sclerotiorum و Pythium aphanidermatum

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت

2 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت

3 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر بحث امکان کنترل بیولوژیک بیمارگرهای خاک زاد موردتوجه جدی محققان قرار گرفته است که از آن جمله می‌توان به کاربرد باکتری‌های آنتاگونیست به‌ویژه باکتری‌های گروه سودومونادهای فلورسنت در کنترل بیماری‌های خاکزی گیاهان اشاره کرد. بیمارگرهای Sclerotinia sclerotiorum، Pythium aphanidermatum از عامل‌های بیماری‌زای مهم گیاهان مختلف ازجمله خیار هستند. در این پژوهش 81 جدایه از ریزوسفر خیار جداسازی، خالص‌سازی و بر مبنای ویژگی‌های ریخت‌شناختی (مورفولوژیکی)، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی شناسایی شدند. بررسی تأثیر آنتاگونیستی جدایه‌ها به روش کشت متقابل نشان داد که جدایه‌های 19C، 21B، 24A، 33B، 33C، 38A، 42D و 43C اثر بازدارندگی مؤثری علیه این بیمارگرها داشتند و ترکیب‌های فرار این جدایه‌ها به‌طور معنی‌داری از رشد پرگنة این بیمارگرها نسبت به شاهد بازدارندگی کردند. در آزمون گلخانه‌ای نیز جدایه‌های 19C و 24A میزان شاخص بیماری ناشی از Pythium aphanidermatum را بیش از 70درصد و میزان شاخص بیماری ناشی از Sclerotinia sclerotiorum را بیش از 60درصد در مقایسه با شاهد کاهش دادند. تولید سورفکتین، آنزیم پروتئاز و سیانید هیدروژن به‌عنوان سازوکارهای بازدارندگی در جدایه‌های برتر بررسی شدند. جدایه­های، 19C، 24A، 33B، 33C، 38A، 42D و 43C قادر به تولید آنزیم پروتئاز، جدایة 19C قادر به تولید سورفکتین و جدایه‌های 33B، 33C، 38A، 42D و 43C قادر به تولید سیانید هیدروژن بودند. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از توالی‌یابی ناحیة ژنی 16S-rDNA جدایه‌های مؤثر در کنترل بیمارگرها نشان داد که این جدایه‌ها با درجۀ اعتبارسنجی زیاد (100 درصد) در کنار جدایه‌های متعلق به جنس‌های Pseudomonas، Stenotrophomonas و Flavobacterium قرار گرفتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of biocontrol characteristics of antagonistic bacteria isolated from cucumber rhizosphere against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pythium aphanidermatum

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saman Bagheri 1
  • Hamidreza Alizadeh 2
  • Mehdi Azadvar 3
  • Amirreza Amirmijani 2
1 M. Sc. Student, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Iran
چکیده [English]

Biological control of soil-borne diseases of plants has received serious attention among plant pathologists in recent years. In this regard, Rhizobacteria, more specifically fluorescent pseudomonads are known as an effective biocontrol of plant diseases. Pseudomonas spp. are promising agents to manage the disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pythium aphanidermatum. In this study, we screened 81 bacterial isolates from cucumber rhizosphere for their antagonistic effects against the pathogens using dual culture method and investigating their ability to produce inhibiting volatile metabolites. Results indicated that isolates 19C, 21B, 24A, 33B, 33C, 38A, 42D, and 43C had significant inhibitory effects on the pathogens and their volatile metabolites significantly reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogens in comparison with controls. In greenhouse trials, isolates 19C and 24A reduced disease index of Pythium aphanidermatum more than 70% and that of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum more than 60% compared with controls. The isolates 19C, 24A, 33B, and 33C were able to produce protease. Isolate 19C was able to produce surfactin and isolates 33B and 33C were able to produce hydrogen cyanide. Molecular identification of isolates was conducted based on partial sequence of 16srDNA amplified by specific primers fD1 and rD1 thereby the isolates showed significant homology with Pseudomonas spp., Stenotrophomonas spp. and Flavobacterium spp.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biological control
  • molecular methods
  • protease enzyme
  • Volatile compounds
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