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تأثیر طیف‌های نوری مختلف بر شکار بید گوجه‌فرنگی Tuta absoluta (Lep.: Gelechiidae)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 محقق، مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

 بید گوجه‌فرنگی Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) یکی از آفات بسیار مهم و کلیدی گوجه‌فرنگی در جهان بوده که به‌تازگی با ورود به ایران تولید این محصول را به‌شدت تهدید می‌کند. این آفت در شرایط مساعد محیطی، چندین نسل در سال دارد که می­تواند مقاومت به انواع حشره‌کش را در پی داشته باشد. یکی از روش­های به نسبت کم‌هزینه و کم‌خطر مهار و مدیریت کنترل این آفت، استفاده از تله­های نوری برای شکار حشرات کامل است. هدف از این پژوهش مقایسۀ تأثیر لامپ‌های موجود و انتخاب مناسب‌ترین آن‌ها برای تلۀ نوری در شرایط آزمایشگاه و گلخانه بوده است. برای تهیۀ حشرات کامل، بوته‌های آلوده به بید گوجه‌فرنگی از گلخانه‌های منطقۀ ورامین گرد­آوری و به اتاق پرورش منتقل شدند. در اتاق پرورش، آزمایش به‌صورت طرح کامل تصادفی با تلۀ نوری استوانه‌ای شکل (حاوی نورهای سبز، آبی، قرمز و زرد) در چهار تیمار و هفت تکرار انجام شد. برای ارزیابی گلخانه‌ای، از تله‌های نوری چسبناک (با چهار نوع لامپ رنگی: آبی SMD، آبی LED، سبز و فرابنفش)، در قالب طرح آزمایشی کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار استفاده شد. در اتاق پرورش، نور آبی و نور قرمز با میانگین شکار کل 2/0± 2/69 و 2/0± 28/0 عدد به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین شکار را داشتند. در شرایط گلخانه بیشترین میانگین شکار مربوط به تلۀ نوری با لامپ فرابنفش (2/0± 8/14) بود، درحالی‌که میانگین شکار تله‌های حاوی لامپ‌های آبی SMD، آبی LED و سبز، به ترتیب 16/0± 4/4، 14/1± 5/5 و 2/1± 16/7 عدد بود. نسبت جنسی در شب‌پره‌های شکارشده در شرایط اتاق پرورش برابر (1:1)، اما در شرایط گلخانه، نسبت ماده‌ها بیشتر بود. درمجموع تله‌های نوری مجهز به لامپ فرابنفش بیشترین شکار شب‌پره را داشته و می­توانند در کنترل جمعیت و کاهش آسیب و زیان این آفت در گلخانه‌ها سودمند واقع شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different light spectrums on the capture of tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lep.: Gelechiidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Mohammadipour 1
  • Aziz Sheikhi Garjan 2
  • Mohammad Java Ardeh 3
1 Researcher, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Tomato leaf miner moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a key pest of tomato in the world, which has recently entered Iran and become a serious threat to tomato production. It has several generations per year which increases the risk of insecticidal resistance. A relatively low-cost and low-risk method to control this pest is a light trap for capturing adults. The goal of this research was to find a proper light source for light traps in the laboratory and greenhouse. To collect the adult, infested tomato plants were collected from the greenhouses of the Varamin region and were brought to the growth chamber. In the growth chamber, a completely randomized design with four light traps (green, blue, red, and yellow) was set up, in four treatments and seven replications. For greenhouse comparisons, the sticky light traps (with four lights of blue SMD, blue LED, green, and UV) were evaluated in a completely randomized design with four replications. The highest and lowest mean captures were recorded for the blue light (69.2±0.2) and red light (0.28±0.2) in growth chamber. In the greenhouse, the highest capture was recorded for UV light trap (14.8±0.2), while the mean captures ofthe moths in the other light traps with SMD, LED, and green light were 4.4±0.16, 5.5±1.14, and 7.16±1.2, respectively. The sex ratio of the captured moths in the growth chamber was equal (1:1), whereas the rate of the females was higher in the greenhouses. In conclusion,the traps with UV light can capture a high number of moths; and could be used to reduce the pest population and the pest damages in the greenhouse.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Light trap
  • Light Spectrum
  • physical control
  • Tomato leaf miner
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