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نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

در این تحقیق برخی فراسنجه (پارامتر)های جدول زندگی شتۀ سبز گندم، (Rondani) Schizaphis graminum،روی رقم‌های یاواراس، بهار، اکبری، پیشتاز و امید و لاین (رگه)­های گندم R1-10، R3-16، R3-17 و R2-9 در شرایط آزمایشگاهی، طی سال 1395 با بررسی بقا و باروری روزانۀ شته درون قفس­های بوته­ای بررسی شد. همچنین میزان تحمل رقم‌ها و لاین­های نامبرده به شته بر پایۀ میزان برخی از پارامتر‌های رشدی از جمله کاهش ارتفاع، میزان سبزینه (کلروفیل)، وزن تر و خشک گیاه در گیاهان آلوده نسبت به گیاهان سالم محاسبه شد. آزمایش­ها در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی انجام شد. شته­ها در روزهای اولیۀ زندگی بقای 100 درصد داشتند. با گذشت زمان، میزان بقاء روند کاهشی پیدا کرد و در روز 44 آخرین حشرۀ ماده تلف شد. بالاترین و پایین­ترین میزان امید به زندگی در روز اول زندگی به ترتیب روی پیشتاز و R1-10 بود. کمترین میزان ذاتی افزایش جمعیت روی رقم یاوراس (262/0 بر روز) و بیشترین آن روی پیشتاز و R2-9 (به ترتیب 346/0 و 340/0 بر روز) به­طور معنی­دار مشاهده شد. بنا بر نتایج آزمایش تحمل، کمترین درصد کاهش وزن تر و خشک در یاواراس، بهار، R1-10 و R3-16 و بیشترین آن‌ها در R2-9 و پیشتاز بود. همچنین کمترین درصد کاهش کلروفیل در یاواراس و R1-10 و بیشترین آن در امید و R2-9 مشاهده شد. نتایج بررسی‌ها نشان داد، پیشتاز و R2-9 حساس‌ترین و یاواراس و R1-10 مقاوم­ترین رقم‌ها و لاین­های گندم آزمایشی نسبت به S. graminum بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the tolerance of wheat cultivars and lines to Schizaphis graminum and investigating the life table parameters

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Mohammadi Anaii 1
  • Maryam Pahlavan Yali 2

1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

چکیده [English]

In this research, some life table parameters of Schizaphis graminum on Yavaras, Bahar, Akbari, Pishtaz and Omid and wheat lines of R1-10, R3-16, R3-17, and R2-9 were investigated under laboratory conditions in 2016. The daily survival and fertility of aphids were studied in leaf cages. Also tolerance of these cultivars and lines to aphids was calculated based on the amount of some growth parameters such as hight reduction, chlorophyll content, the fresh and dry weight of the plant in contaminated plants compared to healthy plants. Experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design. Survival of the aphids in the early of life was 100%. The highest and lowest life expectancy in the first days of life was on Pishtaz and R1-10 respectively. The lowest intrinsic rate of increase was observed on Yavares (0.262 d-1) and the highest was observed on Pishtaz and R2-9 (0.346 and 0.340 d-1, respectively). Based on the results of tolerance, the lowest percentage of fresh and dry weight reduction were on Yavaras, Bahar, R1-10 and R3-16 and the most were on R2-9 and Pishtaz. Furthermore, the lowest percentage of chlorophyll reduction were observed in Yavaras and R1-10 and the highest in Omid and R2-9. The results showed that Pishtaz and R2-9 were the most susceptible and Yavaras and R1-10 were the most resistant wheat cultivars and lines to S. graminum.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • green wheat aphid
  • intrinsic rate of increase
  • Life Expectancy
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