c3518cb17d976b8

القای مقاومت سیستمیک به نماتد ریشۀ ‌گرهی گوجه‌فرنگی با استفاده از اسید سالیسیلیک و دو عامل بیوکنترل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدۀ علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

2 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدۀ علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

3 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد

4 مربی گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدۀ علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر قارچ Trichoderma viride، باکتری Pseudomonas fleurescens CHA0 و اسید سالیسیلیک روی نماتد ریشۀ گرهی (M. incognita race2) و تأثیر آن‌ها بر روند تولید آنزیم‌های دفاعی گوجه‌فرنگی، آزمونی در شرایط گلخانه به مرحلۀ‌ اجرا درآمد. جمعیت نماتد روی رقم حساس گوجه‌فرنگی روتگرز تکثیر و گیاهان مورد آزمون، در مرحلۀ چهار برگی مایه‌زنی شدند. میزان فعالیت آنزیم‌های پراکسیداز، فنیل‌آلانین آمونیالیاز و کاتالاز در روزهای اول، چهارم و هفتم پس از مایه‌زنی نماتد، اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج بررسی‌ها نشان داد، کاربرد قارچ، باکتری و اسید سالیسیلیک، باعث افزایش مهار (کنترل) نماتد شد و کاهش قابل ملاحظه‌ای در شاخص‏های آلودگی مانند شمار گال و تودۀ تخم رخ داد. به‌طوری‌که مایه‌زنی توأم گیاهان آلوده، در رقم‌های Gina VF، Falat CH، Falat 111 و Karoon به ترتیب موجب کاهش درصد شمار گال (81، 68، 80 و 83)، شمار کیسۀ تخم (87، 78، 83 و 88) و عامل تولید‌مثل (83، 69، 82 و 84)  شد. بیشترین شمار گال به­ترتیب در رقم‌های Karoon، Flat 111، Gina VF و Flat CH و بدون حضور عامل‌های مهارکننده مشاهده شد. هر سه عامل افزون بر کاهش شاخص‌های نماتد، به ترتیب باعث افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های دفاعی کاتالاز، پراکسیداز و فنیل‌آلانین آمونیالیاز در گیاه شدند. این افزایش در چهارمین روز پس از مایه‌زنی، به بیشترین میزان خود رسید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Inducing systemic resistance of tomato by salicylic acid and two biocontrol agents against root- knot nematode

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Esfahani 1
  • Salar Jamali 2
  • Ayatollah Saeedizadeh 3
  • Hasan Pedramfar 4
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, P.O. Box: 33191-18651, Tehran, Iran
4 Instructor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effects of the fungus Trichoderma viride, the bacterium Pseudomonas fleurescens CHA0 and salicylic acid against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2) on the defense enzyme production process of tomato, a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. The nematode populations were reproduced on tomato Rutgers cultivar and the test plants were inoculated at four-leaf stage. The peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and catalase activities were measured in the first, fourth and seventh days after nematode inoculation. The results showed that all three application modes of fungi, bacteria, and salicylic acid, increased nematode control and significant decreases occurred in the number of gall and egg mass. The infected plants inoculation with fungi, bacteria and salicylic acid, in the cultivars Gina VF, Falat CH, Falat 111 and Karoon reduced the percentage of gall (81, 68, 80, and 83), the number of egg mass (87, 78, 83, and 88) and reproductive factors (83, 69, 82, and 84), respectively. The highest numbers of galls were observed in Karoon, Flat 111, Gina VF and Flat CH in the absence of control agents, respectively. The three agents not only reduced the amount of disease but also increased the activity of catalase peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzymes in plants, respectively. The enzymes activity reached a maximum on the 4th day after inoculation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Meloidogyne incognita
  • Peroxidase
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens
  • Trichoderma viride
Barker, K. R., Carter, C. C. & Sasser, J. N. (1985). Methodology of an advanced treatise on Meloidogyne. Volume II. North Carolina State University Graphics.
Bera, S. & Purkayastha, R. P. (1999). Multicomponent coordinated defense response of rice to Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight. Currents Science, 76, 1376-1384.
Chance, B. & Maehly, A. C. (1955). Assay of catalases and peroxidases. Methods Enzymology, 11, 764-755.
Chang, A., Lim, M. H., Lee, S. W., Robb, E. J. & Nazar, R. N. (2008). Tomato PAL gene family: highly redundant but strongly underutilized. Journal of Biology and Chemistry, 283, 33591-33601.
Chen, C., Belanger, R. R., Benhamou, N. & Paulitz, T. C. (2000). Defense enzymes induced in cucumber roots by treatment with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Pythium aphanidermatum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 56, 13-23.
Deepaka, Sh., Niranjan-Raja, S., Shailasreea, Sh., Kinia, R.K., Boland, W., Shettya, H. S. & Mithofer, A. (2007). Induction of resistance against downy mildew pathogen in pearl millet by a synthetic jasmonate analogon. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 71, 96-105.
Esfahani, L., Jamali, S., Saeedizadeh, A. & Pedramfar, H. (2016). Effectiveness of salicylic acid, Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and Trichoderma viride to control Meloidogyne incognita race 2 on different tomato cultivars. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 9, 35-43.
Gharabadiyan, F., Jamali, S., Ahmadiyan yazdi, A. & Eskandari, A. (2012). Source of resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) in tomato cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Technology,8(6), 2011-2012.
Goodman, R. N., Kiraly, Z. & Wood, K. P. (1986). Biochemical and physiological aspects of plant disease. (2nd ed.). USA: University of Missouri Press. 433pp.
Howell, C. R. (2003). Mechanisms employed by Trichoderma species in the biocontrol of plant disease: the history and evolution of current concepts. Plant Disease, 87, 4-10
Hussey, R. S. & Barker, K. R. (1973). A comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne spp. including a new technique. Plant Disease Reporter, 57, 1025-1028.
Jepson, S. B. (1987). Identification of root-knot nematodes. )Pp. 847-853(.Cambrian News Ltd.
Karthikeyan, M., Bhaskaran, R., Mathiyazhagan, S. & Velazhahan, R. (2007). Influence of phylloplane colonizing biocontrol agents on the black spotof rose caused by Diplocarpon rosae. Journal of Plant Interactions, 2(4), 225-231.
Ketabchi, S. Majzoob, Sh. & Charegani, H. A. (2014). Effect of salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and total phenol in wheat infected by Pratylenchus thornei. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 48(1), 1-8.
Kishore, G. K., Pande, S. & Podile, R. (2006). Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18 inhibits the cell wall degrading enzymes of Aspergollus niger and activates defense-related enzymes of groundnut in control of collar rot disease. Australasian Plant Pathology, 35, 259-263.
Kloepper, J., Tuzun, S. & Kuc, J. (1992). Proposed definitions related to induced disease resistance. Journal of Biocontrol Science and Technology, 2, 347-349.
Kumar Solanki, M., Singh, N., Kumar Singh, R., Singh, P., Srivastava, A. K., Kumar. S., Kashyap, P. L. & Arora, D. K. (2011). Plant defense activation and management of tomato root rot by a chitin-fortified Trichoderma/Hypocrea formulation. Phytoparasitica, 39, 471-481.
Mariutto, M., Duby, F., Adam, A., Bureau, C., Fauconnier, M. L., Ongena, M., Thonart, P. & Dommes, J. (2011). The elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms. BMC Plant Biology, 11, 29.
Mokhtari, S., Sahebani, N. & Etebarian, H. R. (2009). Study on biological control and systemic induction of peroxidase enzyme activity in tomato plant infected with root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 antagonist. Jouranal of Agriculture, 11(1), 151-161. (in Farsi)
Moslemi, F., Fatemi, S. & Bernard, F. (2016). Inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on Meloidogyne javanica reproduction in tomato plants. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 14(1), 1-7.
Mpiga, P., Belanger, R. R., Paulitz, T. C. & Bennamou, N. (1997). Increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomato plants treated with endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 63- 28. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 50, 301-320.
Naseri Nasab, F., Sahebani, N. & Etebarian, H. R. (2012). The effect of combination of salicylic acid and Trichoderma harzianum BI on tomato plant resistance against root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica. Journal of Plant Protection, 25(4), 417-425. (in Farsi)
Oka, Y., Koltai, H., Bar-Eyal, M., Mor, M., Sharon, E., Chet, I. & Spiegel, Y. (2000). New strategies for the control of plantparasitic nematodes. Pest Management Science, 56, 983-988.
Perry, R. N., Moens, M. & Starr, J. L. (2010). Root-knot Nematodes. CABI Head Office, UK. 488pp.
Prithiviraj, B., Bais, H. P., Weir, T., Suresh, B., Najarro, E. H., Dayakar, B. V., Schweizer, H. P. & Vivanco, J. M. (2005). Down regulation of virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by salicylic acid attenuates its virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans. Infection and Immunity, 73(9), 5319-5328.
Reuveni, R. (1995). Biochemical marker of disease resistance. In: Singh, R.P. and Singh, U. S. (ed.) Molecular methods in plant pathology (pp. 99-114). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
Sahebani, N. & Hadavi, N. (2008). Biological control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 2016-2020.
Sahebani, N. & Hadavi, N. (2009). Induction of H2O2 and related enzymes in tomato roots infected with root-knot nematode (M. javanica) by several chemical and microbial elicitors. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 19, 301-313.
Sahebani, N., Roustaei, A. & Hadavi, N. (2006). Evaluation of biological control of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma viride. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Science, 37(3), 411-405. (in Farsi)
Sarafraz Nikoo, F., Sahebani, N., Aminian1, H., Mokhtarnejad, L. & Ghaderi, R. (2014). Induction of systemic resistance and defense-related enzymes in tomato plants using Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and salicylic acid against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 54 (4), 383-389.
Siddiqui, I. A. & Shaukat, S. S. (2003). Suppression of root-knot disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHAO in tomato: importance of bacterial secondary metabolite, 2, 4-diacetylpholoroglucinol. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35 (12), 1615-1623.
Sikora, R. A. & Hoffmann-Hergarten, S. (1993). Biological control of plant–parasitic nematodes with plant–health promoting rhizobacteria, in pest management: Biologically based technologies. In: Proceedings of Beltsville Symposium XVIII, ed. by Lumsden R. D. and Vaughn JL, American Chemical Society, Washington DC. Pp. 166-172.
Steiner, U. & Schönbeck, F. (1995). Induced disease resistance in monocots. In: Induced resistance to disease in plants. (pp. 86-110). Springer, Dordrecht.‏
Taheri, P. & Tarighi, S. (2010). Riboflavin induces resistance in rice against Rhizoctonia solani via jasmonate-mediated priming of phenylpropanoid pathway. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167, 201-208.
Taylor, D. P. & Netscher, C. (1974). An improved technique for preparing perineal patterns of Meloidogyne spp. Nematologica,20, 268-269.
Thiyagarajan, S. S. & Kuppusamy, H. (2014). Biological control of root knot nematodes in chillies through Pseudomonas fluorescens’s antagonistic mechanism. Journal of Plant Sciences, 2(5), 152-158.
Thompson, D. C. (1996). Evaluation of bacterial antagonists for reduction of summer pateh symptoms in Kentucky blue grass. Plant Disease, 80, 850-862.
Tomankova, K., Luhova, L., Petrivalsky, M., Pec, P. & Lebeda, A. (2006). Biochemical aspects of reactive oxygen species formation in the interaction between Lycopersicon spp. and Oidium neolycopersici. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 68(1-3), 1-11.
Trudgill, D. L. & Blok, V. C. (2001). Apomictic, polyphagous root-knot nematodes: exceptionally successful and damaging biotrophic root pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 39, 53-77.
Van-Loon, L., Baker, P. A. & Pieterse, C. M. (1998). Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. Annul Review of Phytopathology, 36, 453-483.
Zhang, S., Moyne, A. L., Reddy, M. S. & Kloepper, J. W. (2002). The role of salicylic acid in induced systemic resistance elicited by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against blue mold of tobacco. Biological Control, 25, 288-296.