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شناسایی ایدیومورف‌های تیپ آمیزشی در قارچ Paecilomyces formosus، عامل بیماری خشکیدگی سرشاخه درختان پسته و برخی میزبان‌های دیگر و بررسی امکان تولید مثل جنسی آن در شرایط آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رشته بیماری شناسی گیاهی، گروه گیاه پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، کرج

2 دانشیار، گروه گیاه پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، کرج

3 استادیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکده پسته، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رفسنجان، ایران

4 استاد، گروه گیاه پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، کرج

چکیده

بیماری خشکیدگی سرشاخه‌های درختان پسته یک بیماری مهم در مناطق پسته‌کاری ایران محسوب می‌گردد. یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل قارچی این بیماری، از جنس Paecilomyces است که اخیراً بر اساس مطالعات فیزیولوژیکی و فیلوژنتیکی در گونه P. formosus قرار گرفته است. در این پژوهش با استفاده از توالی‌های نوکلئوتیدی ایدیومورف‌های تیپ آمیزشی شناخته‌شده در گونه P. variotii موجود در بانک ژن (NCBI)، تعداد چهار جفت آغازگر طراحی شدند و در تعدادی از جدایه‌های قارچ P. formosusآزمایش گردیدند و درنهایت یک جفت آغازگر شامل Mat1-1f224 و Mat1-1r224 برای تکثیر Mat1-1 و یک جفت آغازگر به نام‌های Mat1-2f165 و Mat1-2r165 برای تکثیر Mat1-2 انتخاب شدند. ایدیومورف‌های تیپ آمیزشی در 124 جدایه از گونه P. formosusکه از درخت پسته و هشت گونه دیگر شامل بنه، انار، بادام اهلی، ابریشم مصری، خرزهره، درخت گز، درختچه شوره گز، درخت تاغ و هوای باغات پسته به دست آمده بودند، نیز تکثیر شدند. درنتیجه در 50 جدایه (3/40 درصد)Mat1-1، در 59 جدایه (6/47 درصد) Mat1-2 و در 15 جدایه (1/12 درصد) نیز هر دو ایدیومورف تیپ آمیزشی تکثیر شدند. تعداد 16 جدایه از هر تیپ آمیزشی و سه جدایه که دارای هر دو ایدیومورف بودند، انتخاب شدند و روی محیط کشت PDA با حالات مختلف باهم تلاقی داده شده و در دمای 25 درجه سلسیوس و شرایط تاریکی مداوم نگهداری شدند. پس از گذشت هشت ماه، هیچ نشانه‌ای مبنی بر وقوع تولیدمثل جنسی مشاهده نشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of mating type idiomorphs in Paecilomyces formosus, the causal agent of die-back disease in pistachio and some other hosts and investigation on the possibility of in vitro sexual reproduction

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Heidarian 1
  • Khalil-Berdi Fotouhifar 2
  • Amir-Hossein Mohammadi 3
  • Mohammad Javan Nik Khah 4
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Pistachio Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Pistachio die-back disease is an important disease in Iranian pistachio orchards. One of the most important fungal agents of the disease is Paecilomyces which has been recently identified as P. formosus based on phylogenetic and physiologic studies. In this study, four pairs of primers designed using mating type idiomorph sequences of P. variotii deposited in GenBank (NCBI). Designed primers were tested in some isolates of P. formosus and finally two primer pairs including; Mat1-1f224 and Mat1-1r224 for amplification of Mat1-1 and Mat1-2f165 and Mat1-2r165 primers for amplification of Mat1-2 idiomorphs were selected. Mating type idiomorphs were amplified in 124 isolates of P. formosus which have been obtained from pistachio trees and eight other species including; Pistacia mutica, Punica granatum, Prunus amygdalus, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Nerium oleander, Tamarix aphylla, Tamarix hispida, Haloxylon sp. and air of pistachio orchards. In 50 isolates (40.3%) Mat1-1, in 59 isolates (47.6%) Mat1-2 and in 15 isolates (12.1%) both idiomorphs were identified. 16 isolates from each mating type and three isolates which had both idiomorphs were selected and crossed in all of the possible combinations on PDA culture medium and cultures were incubated at 25 °C in continuous dark condition. After eight months, sexual reproduction was not observed in crosses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crossing
  • MAT
  • P. variotii
  • primer
  • Sequence
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