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فعالیت ضد نماتدی برخی عصاره‌های گیاهی روی نماتد ریشه‌گرهی (Meloidogyne javanica) در گوجه‌فرنگی در شرایط آزمایشگاه و گلخانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج ایران

3 استاد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج ایران

چکیده

تأثیر غلظت‌های مختلف عصارۀ آبی برگ گیاهان پنیرک (Malva sylvestris) و شقایق (Papaver rhoeas) و پوست سبز میوۀ گردو (Juglanse regia) در جلوگیری از تفریخ تخم و مرگ‌ومیر لارو سن دوم نماتد Meloidogyne javanica در شرایط آزمایشگاهی بررسی شد. در آزمایش مرگ‌ومیر لارو سن دوم، 14 غلظت25/0، 3/0، 35/0، 4/0، 45/0، 5/0، 55/0، 6/0، 65/0، 75/0، 1، 25/1، 5/1 و 2 درصد از عصارۀ پنیرک، هفت غلظت 5/0، 5/1، 2، 5/2، 3، 5/3 و 4 درصد از عصارۀ شقایق و هشت غلظت 1، 2، 3، 5/3، 4، 5/4، 5 و 6درصد از عصارۀ پوست سبز میوۀ گردو استفاده شد. در بررسی‌های گلخانه‌ای، در سه آزمایش مستقل، درزمینۀ مهار (کنترل)‌کنندگی 100 میلی‌لیتر از غلظت‌های مؤثر در مرگ‌ومیر 20، 50 و 80 درصد (LC20، LC50 و LC80) لاروهای سن دوم مربوط به هر عصارۀ گیاهی (به ترتیب 36/0، 58/0 و 94/0 درصد عصارۀ پنیرک، 3/2، 9/2 و 8/3 درصد عصارۀ شقایق و 68/2، 07/4 و 18/5 درصد عصارۀ پوست میوۀ گردو) روی نماتد ریشه‌گرهی در گیاهچه‌های گوجه‌فرنگی بررسی و ارزیابی لازم صورت گرفت. نتایج بررسی‌ها نشان داد، در شرایط آزمایشگاهی، همۀ عصاره‌های گیاهی مورد بررسی ویژگی نماتدکشی داشتند. در شرایط گلخانه، افزایش غلظت عصاره‌های گیاهی به‌طور معنی‌داری باعث بهبود شاخص‌های رشدی گیاه شدند. غلظت معادل LC80 عصاره‌های پنیرک، شقایق و پوست میوۀ گردو در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد، به ترتیب باعث کاهش معنی‌دار شمار گال به میزان 59، 71 و 74 درصد و فاکتور تولیدمثل نماتد به میزان 7/56، 85 و 87 درصد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nematicidal activity of some plant extracts on root-knot nematode on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in vitro and in vivo conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Alikarami 1
  • Habiballah Charehgani 2
  • Mohammad Abdollahi 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The effect of different concentrations of mallow (Malva sylvestris) and poppies (Papaver rhoeas) leaves and walnut (Juglanse regia) green husks extracts were investigated on hatching and mortality of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica under experimental conditions. In J2 mortality test, the extracts were used in 14 levels of mallow (0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, 0.55, 0.6, 0.65, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 2%), 7 levels of poppy (0.5, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4%) and 8 levels of walnut green husks (1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5 and 6%). In three independent tests, controlling effect of 100 milliliters of the obtained lethal concentrations (LC20, LC50 and LC80) of each extracts (0.36, 0.58 and 0.94% for mallow; 2.3, 2.9 and 3.8% forpoppies; 2.68, 4.07 and 5.18% for walnut green husks) on M. javanica were evaluated under the greenhouse condition. According to the results of this study, the nematicidal effect of all tested extracts against M. javanica was proved under laboratory conditions. In greenhouse trials, any increase in the concentration of plant extracts significantly improved the growth indices of tomato plants and also the obtained LC80of mallow, poppy and walnut green husks extracts significantly reduced the number of galls by 59, 71 and 74%, respectively, and the reproduction factor by 56.7, 85 and 87%, respectively, when compared to the control.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lethal concentration
  • Mallow
  • Poppy
  • Walnut
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