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اولین گزارش گونه‌هایFusarium culmorum و Fusarium subglutinans جداشده از رقم‌های پیاز استان‌های آذربایجان‌شرقی و غربی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد، گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

گونه­های مختلف فوزاریوم یک گروه از بیمارگرها هستند که سبب خسارت اقتصادی کمی و کیفی به پیاز می­شوند. آلودگی‌های فوزاریومی معمولاً از کشتزار شروع و تا مرحلۀ انبارداری ادامه می­یابد. بیماری پوسیدگی فوزاریومی ریشه و طبق پیاز در سراسر جهان وجود دارد و در چند سال اخیر در مناطق عمدۀ کشت پیاز و به­خصوص در استان­های آذربایجان­شرقی و غربی گسترش زیادی پیدا کرده است و در حال حاضر مهم‌ترین بیماری پیاز در کشور است. به‌منظور شناسایی تکمیلی عامل بیماری در مناطق عمدۀ کشت این محصول از آذربایجان­شرقی (ایلخچی، آذرشهر، عجب­شیر، بناب، ملکان، مرند، مراغه) و آذربایجان­غربی (میاندوآب، خوی، سلماس) در تابستان 1391 از مزارع متعددی نمونه‏برداری به‏ عمل آمد. پس از انجام جداسازی و خالص‏سازی، درمجموع 140 جدایه خالص‎سازی گردید. از جدایه‏های خالص‌شده 80 جدایه جهت انجام آزمون بیماری‏زایی روی غده پیاز انتخاب‌ ‌شدند که 42 تا از جدایه­ها بیماری‌زا بودند. بر اساس ویژگی‏های ریخت‌شناختی (مورفولوژیکی) و داده‏های مولکولی ناشی از تکثیر قطعۀ موردنظر بر اساس آغازگرهای اختصاصی گونه­ای درمجموع 9 گونه، F. oxysporum، F. proliferatum، F. redolens،F. subglutinans ، F. culmorum، F. avenaceum، F. crookwellens، F.nygamaiوF. solani شناسایی شدند. از بین 42 جدایۀ مورد بررسی 28/14درصد جدایه­ها پرآزاری شدید (بالای 60%)، 19/26درصد پرآزاری به‌نسبت شدید (بین60-50%)، 48/40% پرآزاری متوسط (50-40%) و در نهایت 05/19درصد جدایه­ها پرآزاری ضعیف (40-30%) از خود نشان دادند. از 42 جدایۀ مورد مطالعه گونۀ Fusarium subglutinans، با فراوانی 38/2 درصد و پرآزاری درصد 43 در گروه C، گونهF. culmorum ، با فراوانی 14/7 درصد و پرآزاری 50درصد در گروه B قرار گرفتند که برای اولین بار از روی پیاز از این مناطق گزارش می‏شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The first report of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium subglutinans in onion from West and East Azarbaijan provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Jahedi 1
  • Ebrahim Mohammadi Goltapeh 2
  • Naser Safaie 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Pathology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Various Fusarium species are pathogenic groups that cause economic loss (quantitatively and qualitatively) in Allium cepa L., Fusarium species including F. culmorum and F. subglutinans are of great importance in all onion growing areas. Fusarium infection usually starts from the farm and continue throughout the storage and marketing. Fusarium and basal rots of onion are important around the world. In recent years, they had a large spread in the major onion growing areas in West and East Azarbaijan provinces, and now are the most important disease of onions in Iran. Therefore, in order to identify and study this disease in major areas of cultivation, samples were taken from several fields in East Azarbaijan (Ilkhchi, Azarshahr, Ajabshir, Bonab, Malekan, Marand, Maraghe) and West Azarbaijan (Miandoab, Khoy, Salmas) in summer 2012. After isolation and purification, 140 isolates were obtained. Eighty isolates were selected for pathogenicity test on onion bulbs of which 42 were pathogenic. Among the 42 studied isolates, they categorized as extremely (14.28%), highly (26.19%), moderately (40.48%) and weakly (19.05%) virulent. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular identification using species-specific primers, eight species were confirmed. Out of the 42 isolates studied, F. subglutinans, with a frequency of 2.38% and 43% disease severity and F. culmorum, with a frequency of 7.14% and 50% disease severity are reported for the first time on onion in these areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fusarium wilt
  • Onion
  • root and basal
  • species-specific primers
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