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شناسایی قارچ‌های عامل سرخشکیدگی درختان کاج در کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

2 استادیار، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

چکیده

به‌منظور شناسایی عامل‌های قارچی دخیل در سرخشکیدگی درختان کاج در شهر کرمانشاه، در فصل‌های مختلف سال­های 1395-1394 از درختان کاج دارای نشانه‌های بیماری،نمونه‌برداری و جداسازی قارچ­ها صورت گرفت. در نتیجه 169 جدایۀ قارچی شامل گونه­های مختلف جنس Aspergilusبا 41 جدایه (فراوانی 26/24 درصد)، گونه­های مختلف جنس Peniciliumبا 25 جدایه (فراوانی 79/14 درصد)، Microsphaeropsis olivaceaبا 16 جدایه (فراوانی 46/9 درصد)، Trichoderma harzianum با 15 جدایه (فراوانی 87/8 درصد)، جنس Rhizopusبا 15 جدایه (فراوانی 87/8 درصد)، Paecilomyces variotii با 9 جدایه (فراوانی 32/5 درصد)، Microsphaeropsis protea با هشت جدایه (فراوانی 73/4 درصد)، Neoscytalidium dimidiatum با هشت جدایه (فراوانی 73/4 درصد)، جنس Eupenicillium با هشت جدایه (فراوانی 73/4 درصد)، Kalmusia variispora با هفت جدایه (فراوانی 14/4 درصد)، Cladosporium sphaerospermum با شش جدایه (فراوانی 55/3 درصد)، Pithomyces sp. با شش جدایه (فراوانی 55/3 درصد) و Alternaria sp. با پنج جدایه (فراوانی 95/2 درصد) به دست آمد. در بررسی آزمون بیماری‌زایی روی شاخه­های بریدۀ درختان کاج، در بین همۀ جدایه­های قارچی تنها 16 جدایه از Microsphaeropsis olivacea، هشت جدایه از Microsphaeropsis protea و هفت جدایه از Kalmusia variispora روی شاخه­های بریدۀ درختان کاج شانکر ایجاد کردند و بیماری‌زا بودن آن‌ها به اثبات رسید. آزمون بیماری‌زایی در گلخانه روی نهال­های دوسالۀ درختان کاج نیز صورت گرفت که جدایه­های این سه قارچ همگی قادر به ایجاد شانکر روی نهال­ها بودند. از درختان مایه‌زنی شده که نشانه‌های بیماری داشتند دوباره قارچ جداسازی و شناسایی شد. درستی جدایه­های شناسایی‌شده با توالی یابی ITS-rDNA تأیید شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of fungal causal agents of pine trees die back in Kermanshah province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narges Karami 1
  • Samad Jamalii 2
  • Rouhallah Sharifi 2
1 M. Sc. Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

During, 2015-2016 a general survey was conducted in Kermanshah province (west of Iran) in order to identify the fungi implicated in the dieback of pine trees. A sum of 169 fungal isolates was obtained from pine trees showing dieback symptoms. The most frequent species associated with pine trees were different species of Aspergilus (41 isolates), different species of Penicilium (25isolates), Microsphaeropsis olivacea (16 isolates), Trichoderma harzianum (15 isolates), Rhizopus (15isolates), Paecilomyces variotii (nine isolates), Microsphaeropsis protea (eightisolates), Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (eightisolates), Eupenicillium (eightisolates), Kalmusia variispora (seven isolates), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (sixisolates), Pithomyces sp. (sixisolates) and Alternaria sp. (five isolates). Pathogenicity tests were carried out to determine the role of these species on detached. In pathogenicity tests under laboratory conditions, just isolates of M. olivacea, M. protea and K. variispora could infect inoculated branches at 25°C. Three isolates from each species were used for pathogenicity tests on two-year-old pine seedlings. A month after inoculation, symptoms developed as canker. Pathogens were re-isolated from all inoculated plants after observation of symptoms, thus completing Koch,s postulates. This is the first report of M. olivacea, M. protea and K. variispora as the causal agents of pine decline in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Internal trancecribed spacer
  • Kalmusia
  • Microsphaeropsis
  • morphological identification
  • Pathogenicity
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