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بررسی مقاومت به بیماری بلایت فوزاریومی سنبله در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم امیدبخش سال 1392 اقلیم گرم و خشک جنوب کشور در شرایط مزرعه و گلخانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات غلات، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیۀ نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، استان البرز، ایران

2 مربی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، گرگان، استان گلستان، ایران

3 مربی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، پارس‌آباد، استان اردبیل، ایران

4 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات غلات، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیۀ نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، استان البرز، ایران

چکیده

بیماری بلایت فوزاریومی سنبله ناشی از گونه­های مختلف قارچ Fusarium به­ویژه Fusarium graminearum، یکی از مهم­ترین بیماری­های گندم در اقلیم گرم و مرطوب کشور است. این بیماری از اقلیم گرم و خشک جنوب کشور نیز گزارش شده و در چند مورد آسیب و زیان آن به گندم قابل توجه بوده است. در این بررسی، 32 نژادگان (ژنوتیپ) گندم مربوط به آزمایش مقایسه عملکرد امیدبخش اقلیم گرم و خشک جنوب در سال 1392 (ERWYT-S-1392) با هدف شناسایی ژنوتیپ­های مقاوم به بیماری، طی دو سال زراعی 93-1392 و 94-1393در شرایط مزرعه در دو منطقۀ گرگان و مغان و نیز در شرایط گلخانه نسبت به بیماری آزمایش شدند. تجزیۀ مرکب داده­های مربوط به میزان وقوع، شدت و شاخص بیماری و میزان آلودگی دانه در شرایط مزرعه نشان داد، برای هر چهار صفت یادشده، تفاوت معنی­داری بین این ژنوتیپ­ها وجود دارد. همچنین، تجزیۀ سادۀ داده­های مربوط به پیشرفت بیماری در سنبله (شدت بیماری) در گلخانه نشان داد، تفاوت معنی­داری بین ژنوتیپ­ها وجود دارد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد، از بین 32 ژنوتیپ مورد آزمایش، دو رگۀ (لاین) آزمایشی S-92-6 و S-92-7به علت پایین بودن همۀ متغیرهای مرتبط با مقاومت به بیماری در شرایط مزرعه و گلخانه و احتمال وجود سه نوع مقاومت I، II و IV در آن‌ها می­توانند برای جایگزینی رقم‌های قدیمی­تر در اقلیم گرم و خشک در نظر گرفته شوند. در اولویت بعد، سه لاین S-92-2، S-92-3و S-92-4 قرار داشتند که از بیشتر جنبه‌ها مقاومت مطلوبی در برابر بیماری داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) among the 2013 elite wheat genotypes of the south warm and dry zone in Iran under field and greenhouse conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Malihipour 1
  • Mohammad Ali Dehghan 2
  • Kamal Shahbazi 3
  • Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh Moghaddam 4
1 Assistant Professor, Cereal Research Department, Seed & Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), AREEO, Karaj, Alborz, Iran
2 Instructor, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan, Golestan, Iran
3 Instructor, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Parsabad, Ardabil, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Cereal Research Department, Seed & Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), AREEO, Karaj, Alborz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most important diseases of wheat in the North warm and humid zone of Iran. The disease has also been reported from the South warm and dry zone of Iran, and in some cases there has been considerable damage from the disease in this zone. For the purpose of identifying FHB-resistant wheat genotypes, the reactions of 32 genotypes of the Elite Regional Wheat Yield Trial of the South warm and dry zone in 1392 (ERWYT-S-1392) to FHB were determined under field conditions in two locations (Gorgan and Moghan) for two successive growing years (2013-14 and 2014-15). The genotypes were also tested for FHB resistance under greenhouse conditions. Results of combined analysis of variance for several datasets including disease incidence, severity, index and Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) from field experiments showed significant differences among the genotypes for all traits. Significant differences were also observed among the genotypes tested under greenhouse conditions. Among the 32 genotypes examined, S-92-6 and S-92-7 were the most resistant genotypes to FHB under field and greenhouse conditions. They seemed to have three types of resistance including type I, type II and type IV. These genotypes may be recommended as candidates to replace the older cultivars in the South wam and dry zone in the term of resistance to FHB. In the second priority, three genotypes of S-92-2, S-92-3 and S-92-4 with an optimal level of resistance to FHB may also be recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fusarium graminearum
  • Fusarium head blight (FHB)
  • Resistance
  • south warm and dry zone
  • Wheat
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