c3518cb17d976b8

تنوع جدایه‌های قارچ Gibberella fujikuroi از نظر ارتباط بین تولید هورمون جیبرلین و شدت بیماری‌زایی در گیاه برنج

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان

2 استادیار پژوهش، بخش گیاه‌پزشکی مؤسسۀ تحقیقات برنج کشور

3 استاد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

پوسیدگی طوقۀ برنج از مهم­ترین بیماری­های این گیاه در مناطق برنج­کاری است. قدکشیدگی از علائم بارز این بیماری است که در اثر تولید هورمون جیبرلین توسط بیمارگر ظاهر می­شود. این تحقیق به‌منظور شناسایی مجدد گونه­های بیمارگر باکانه، ترکیب جمعیتی گونه­ای بیمارگر، شدت بیماری­زایی، تولید هورمون جیبرلین و ارتباط دو صفت اخیر با جمع­آوری 50 نمونۀ گیاهی و سوا­سازی 23 جدایه از بیمارگر انجام شد. تعیین شدت بیماری­زایی به روش مایه­زنی ساقه­ی رقم گوهر در مرحلۀ گیاهچه­ای صورت گرفت. نتایج شناسایی جدایه­ها منجر به تشخیص گونه­های Fusarium fujikuroi و Fusarium verticillioides به ترتیب با ترکیب جمعیتی 4/88 و 6/11 درصد شد. نتایج آزمون بیماری­زایی نشان داد، مایه­زنی باعث ایجاد آلودگی در تمام گیاهان می­شود، هر­چند جدایه­ها از جهت شدت بیماری­زایی در میزبان متفاوت بودند. تعیین میزان جیبرلین به روش­های اسپکتروفتومتری(طیف‌سنج نوری) و HPLC نشان داد، همۀ جدایه­ها قادر به تولید جیبرلین می­باشند ولی میزان آن در جمعیت مورد مطالعه متفاوت بود. آنالیز داده­ها مشخص کرد که بین شاخص میزان تولید جیبرلین در بیمارگر و درصد افزایش ارتفاع ساقه (شدت بیماری­زایی) در گیاه از لحاظ آماری ارتباط معنی­داری وجود ندارد. احتمالاً حضور بیمارگر در گیاه و تأثیر قدرت بیماری­زایی آن بیشتر و یا سریع­تر از تأثیر جیبرلین در گیاه واقع شده است. این موضوع منجر به عدم درک رابطۀ بین میزان جیبرلین تولید و شدت بیماری‌زایی بیمارگر شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Diversity between different Gibberella fujikuroi isolates on their gibberellin hormone production and disease severity in rice plant

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Efati lakeh 1
  • Fereidoun Ppadasht-Dehkaei 2
  • Hossein Saremi 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Rice Research Institute, Rasht, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Bakanae disease of rice is one of the most important rice diseases all over the worlds. Elongation is one of the conspicuous symptoms of Bakanae disease that is caused by gibberellins-producing isolates of the pathogen. The present investigation was done to reconsider the species of Bakanae, the ratio of pathogen’s species, virulence, gibberellin production and the relationship between virulence and the rate of gibberellin production in 23 isolates by gathering 50 samples of infected plants from rice fields. In order to identify the disease severity, inoculation of the plant stem was done by injection of spore suspension at the seedling stage in the Gohar variety. Results led us to identify two species of pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium verticillioides, and each one of them had a population of 88.4 and 11.6%, respectively. Results of the pathogenicity test showed that inoculation of the seedling causes infection in all the plant. Furthermore, the disease severity caused by the tested isolates were different in all the host plants. Results from tests of gibberellin determination using spectrophotometry and HPLC methods revealed that all the isolates were able to produce the hormone but the amount of it differed among isolates. No significant correlation was observed between the amount of gibberellin and percentage of stem elongation (disease severity). Perhaps, it may be due to early effects of virulence ability of the pathogen in comparison with late effects of gibberellin in the host plant. This leads to a lack of relationship between gibberellin levels and the disease severity of the pathogen.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fusarium fujikuroi
  • gibberellic acid
  • HPLC
  • spectrophotometry
Ahmed, H. U., Mia, M. A. T. & Miah, S. A. (1986). Standardized test tube inolulation for bakanae disease (Bak). International Rice Researsh Notes, 11, 21-22.
Amoah, B. K., Rezanoor, H. N., Nicholson, P. & MAC-Donald, M.V. (1995). Variation in Fusarium section Liseola: pathogenicity and genetic studies of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon from different hosts in Chana. Plant Pathology, 44, 563-572.
Bashyal, B. M. & Aggarwal, R. (2013). Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. associated with bakanae disease of rice in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 83, 72-77.
Bashyal, B. M., Aggarwal, R., Sharma, S., Gupta, S. & Singh, U. B. (2016). Single and combined effect of three Fusarium species associated with rice seeds in the severity of bakanae disease of rice. Journal of Plant Pathology, 98 (2), 405-412.
Berrios, J., Illanes, A. & Aroca, G. (2004). Spectrophotometric method for determining Gibberellic acid in fermentation broths. Biotechnology of Letters, 26, 67-70.
Bhalla, K., Sing, SH. B. & Agarwal, R. (2010). Quantitative determination of gibberellins by high performance liquid chromatography from various gibberellins producing Fusarium strains. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 167, 515-520.
Desjardins, A. E., Manandhar, H. K., Plattner, R. D., Manandhar, G. G., Poling, S. M. & Maragos, C. M. (2000). Fusarium species from Nepalese rice and production of mycotoxins and gibberellic acid by selected species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66 (3), 1020-1025.
Ergun, N., Topcuglu, F. & Yildiz, A. (2002). Auxin (Indole-3-acetic acid), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (zeatin) production by some species of mosses and lichens. Turkish Journal of Botany, 26, 13-18.
Gerlach, W. & Nirenberg, H. I. (1982). The Genus Fusarium-a Pictorial atlas. Berlin.
Gomez, K. A. & Gomez, A. A. (1989). Statistical procedure for agricultural research. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines.
Hori, S. (1898). Some observation on “bakanae” disease of rice plant. Memory of Agricultural Station Research. Tokyo, 12 (1), 110-119.
Hosein nejad, A. (2007). Study on the sensitivity of Fusarium isolates, casual agents of rice bakanae and foot rot disease to fungicides and using RAPD and PCR-RFLP to compare these isolates in Guilan province. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Hamedan. (in Farsi)
Johnson, S. W. & Coolbaugh, R. C. (1990). Light-stimulated gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi. Plant Physiology, 94, 1696-1701.
Kurosawa, E. (1926). Experimental studies on the filtrate of the casual fungus of the bakanae disease of the rice plant. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa, 16, 213-227. (in Japanese of Botany, 3, 91)
Leslie, J. F. & Summerell, A. B. (2006). The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Blackwell Publishing.
Nirenberg. H. I. & O'Donnell, K. (1998). New Fusarium species and combinations within the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Mycologia, 90, 434-458.
Ou, S. H. (1985). Bakanae disease and foot rot. Rice Diseases. C.A.B. Press.
Padasht-Dehkaei, F. (1993). Study on rice foot rot (Gibberella fujikuroi) in Guilan province. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Tehran. (in Farsi)
Rangaswamy, V. (2012). Improved production of gibberellic acid by Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Microbiology Research, 2(3), 51-55.
Saremi, H. (2005). Fusarium, biology, ecology and taxonomy. Iran: Jihad Daneshgahi Press, University of Mashhad. (in Farsi)
Sun, S. K. & Snyder, W. C. (1981). The bakanae disease of the rice plant. In P. E. Nelson, T. A. Tousson & R. J. Cook (Ed.), Fusarium disease, biology and taxonomy. (pp. 104-113). The Pennsylvania State University press.
Sunder, S. & Satyavir, S. (1998). Vegetative compatibility, biosynthesis of GA3 and virulence of Fusarium moniliforme isolates from bakanae disease of rice. Plant Plathology, 47, 767-772.
Thakur, K. S. S. (1974). Role of gibberellic acid, fusaric acid and pectic enzymes in the foot root disease of rice. Riso, 23, 191-207.
Takenaka, M., Hayashi, K., Ogawa, T., Kimura, SH. & Tanaka, T. (1992). Lowered virulence to rice plants and decreased biosynthesis of gibberellins in mutants of Gibberella fujikuroi selected with Pefurazoate. Journal of Pesticide Sience, 17, 213-220.
Taniamoto, E., Yanagishima, N. & Masuda, Y. (2006). Effect of gibberellic acid on dwarf and normal Pea plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 20(2), 297-298.
Vandamme, E. J. (1989). Biotechnology of Vitamins, Pigments, and growth Factors, part Fungal Gibberellin Production. Elsevier Science Publisher Ltd.
Voigt, K., Schleier, S. & Brukner, B. (1994). Genetic variability in Gibberella fujikuroi and some related species of the genus Fusarium based on random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Current Genetics, 27 (6), 528-535.
Wulff, E. G., Sorensen. J. L., Lubeck, M., Nielsen, K. F., Thrane, U. & Trop, J. (2000). Fusarium spp. associated with rice Bakanae: ecology, genetic diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity. Retrieved Feb. 21, 2015, University of Copenhagen, from ewu@life.ku.dk/ http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20002135.
Zainudin, N. A. I., Razak, A. A. & Salleh, B. (2008a). Secondary metabolite profiles and mating population of Fusarium species in section Liseola associated with nakanae disease of rice. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 4 (1), 6-13.
Zainudin, N. A. I., Razak, A. A. & Salleh, B. (2008b). Bakanae disease of rice in Malaysia and Indonesia: etiology of the causal agent based on morphological, physiological and pathological characteristics. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 48 (4), 475-485.
Zainudin, N. A. I. & Salleh, B. (2010). Variability of Fusarium speices associated with bakanae disease of rice based on their virulence, vegetative and biological compatibilities. Sydowia, 62 (1), 89-104.