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شناسایی ریخت‌شناختی و مولکولی برخی عامل‏ های شبه قارچی ایجادکنندۀ بیماری پوسیدگی طوقه و ریشۀ درختان بادام در استان‌های اصفهان و چهارمحال بختیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 استادیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج

3 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

بادام یکی از درختان میوه تیرۀ Rosaceae است که در استان‌های‏‏‏ اصفهان و چهارمحال و بختیاری برای استفاده از دانۀ خوراکی آن نسبت به سایر درختان میوۀ هسته‌دار‏‏‏ بیشتر کشت می‌شود. در این پژوهش، برخی از عامل‏های پوسیدگی ریشه و طوقۀ درختان بادام مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. بر اساس خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی 53 جدایۀ Phytophthora cactorum (19 جدایه) و Phytophthora cryptogea (21 جدایه) و Phytopythium litorale (13 جدایه) جداسازی و شناسایی شدند. به‌منظور تأیید مولکولی گونه‌های‏‏‏ شناسایی‌شده، تعداد 25 جدایه از بین 53 جدایۀ کل به‌طور تصادفی جهت تعیین توالی، محصول حاصل از تکثیر ناحیه‏های ITS انتخاب شدند. همچنین از جفت آغازگرهای اختصاصی BPhycacL87FRG(F) /BPhycacR87RRG و Cryp1(F)/ Cryp2 برای شناسایی اختصاصی گونه‌ها‏‏‏ استفاده شد. واکنش نهال‌های هشت‌ماهه رقم‏های بادام سنگی، ربیع، شاهرود 12 و پایه GF677 به سه جدایۀ (cactorum P) P1، (P. cryptogea) P32 و (Pp. litorale) P41 در شرایط گلخانه نشان داد که گونه‌های‏‏‏ P. cactorum و P. cryptogea و Pp. litorale به لحاظ بیماری‌زایی‏‏‏ تفاوت معنی‌داری‏‏‏ با یکدیگر دارند. گونه‌های‏‏‏ Pp. litoraleوP. cactorum به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین بیماری‌زایی را در مقابل همۀ رقم‏های بادام داشتند و رقم‏های سنگی و GF677 به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین حساسیت را در برابر هر سه گونه از خود نشان دادند. برای پژوهش‌های فیلوژنتیکی، تعداد 9 جدایه (سه جدایه از هر گونۀ P. cactorum، P. cryptogea و Pp. litorale)بر اساس توالی‏یابی‏‏‏ ناحیۀ ITS-rDNA بررسی شدند. این پژوهش اولین گزارش از بیماری‌زایی Pp. litorale روی بادام در ایران است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Morphological and molecular identification of some causal agents of root and crown rot diseases of almond in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahram Sharifnabi 1
  • Fariba Ghaderi 2
  • Nahid Javadi 3
1 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Iran
3 Former M. Sc. Student, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) is a deciduous tree in the Rosaceae family and is grown mostly for its edible seed. It is one of the most popular nuts on a worldwide basis and widely grown in Iran in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari provinces. Root and crown rot causal agents which are caused by several pathogens were studied. According to morphological characteristics, 53 isolates were identified as Phytopythium litorale (13 isolates), Phytophthora cactorum (19 isolates), and P. crytogea (21 isolates). Out of 53 isolates, 25 isolates were selected for molecular studies. Specific primer pairs of BPhycacL87FRG (F)/BPhycacR87RRG and Cryp1(F)/Cryp2 were used to confirm morphological identification of species. The reaction of crown and root of 8-month-old almondcultivars Sangi, Rabee, Shahrood12 and GF677 to virulent isolates of P. cactorum, P. cryptogea,and Pp. litorale was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Comparison of pathogenicity means revealed that there are significant differences among P. cactorum, P. cryptogea,and Pp. litorale isolates.The results alsoshowedthat Pp. litorale was more aggressive than P. cactorum. On all tested almond cultivars, disease severity percentage showed that Sangi is the most susceptible cultivar and GF677 showed the least susceptibility. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of some Phytophthora and Phytopythium species based on sequencing of the rDNA-ITS region is provided. This is the first report of isolation and pathogenicity of Phytopythium litorale from almond orchards in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pathogenicity
  • phylogeny
  • Phytophthora
  • Phytopythium
  • Taxonomy
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