شناسایی ترکیب‏ های آلی فرّار برگ پسته و نقش آن‌ها در جلب پسیل معمولی پسته Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 استاد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

3 دانشیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج


پسیل معمولی پسته (Agonoscena pistaciae) آفت کلیدی باغ‌های پسته در ایران به شمار می‌رود. در حال حاضر ترکیب‏های حشره‌کش علیرغم تأثیرات منفی خود بر سلامت انسان و محیط‌زیست، بیشتر تنها و واپسین گزینۀ ممکن در مهار پسیل معمولی پسته هستند. بااین‌حال فشار گزینشی آفت‏کش‏ها باعث به وجود آمدن جمعیت‌های بسیار مقاوم از پسیل معمولی پسته شده است. امروزه ترکیب‏های آلی فرّار گیاهان امیدواری‌هایی را در گسترش روش‌های پایدار مدیریت آفت‌ها ایجاد کرده‌اند. در این راستا، ترکیب‏های آلی فرّار از برگ درختان پستۀ رقم‏های اوحدی (Ohadi) و کله قوچی (Kale ghoochi) جمع‌آوری شده و با روش کروماتوگرافی گازی-طیف‌سنجی جرمی (GC-MS) شناسایی شدند. به ترتیب 43 و 37 ترکیب آلی فرّار ازجمله ترکیب‏های مونوترپن، استری، اسیدی، الکلی، آلدهیدی و آروماتیک در دو رقم اوحدی و کله قوچی شناسایی شدند. در میان ترکیب‏های، سه ترکیب (E)- β-Ocimene، Limonene و Methyl benzoate به ترتیب با 5/32، 8/14 و 1/12 درصد در رقم اوحدی و سه ترکیب (E)- β-Ocimene، Limonene و α-Thujene به ترتیب با 2/29، 1/20 و 6/6 درصد در رقم کله قوچی بیشترین مقدار را به خود اختصاص دادند. بررسی پاسخ بویایی حشره‏های بالغ پسیل معمولی پسته در بو سنج (Olfactometer) Y شکل نشان داد که حشره‏های نر (03/0>P) و ماده (001/0>P) به‌طور معنی‌داری به بوی برگ درختان پسته (رقم اوحدی) جلب می‌شوند. نتیجه‏های برآمده از این پژوهش می‌تواند در گسترش روش‌های مهاری بر پایۀ به‌کارگیری مواد رابط شیمایی همانند شکار انبوه و یا دور کردن پسیل معمولی پسته و یا جلب دشمنان طبیعی آن مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of volatile organic compounds of pistachio trees and their role in attraction of common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahboob Ghamari 1
  • Vahid Hosseininaveh 2
  • Khalil Talebi Jahromi 2
  • Jamasb Nozari 3
  • Hossein Allahyari 2
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Science and Engineering, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The common pistachio psyllid (CPP: Agonoscena pistaciae) is the key pest of pistachio orchards in Iran. At the moment, insecticides despite their known adverse effects on human health and environment, are the only and the last option for controlling CPP in most cases. However, selection pressure of insecticides has resulted in establishing highly resistant populations of CPP. Nowadays, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of plants presenting opportunities for sustainable plant protection. In this regard, VOCs of pistachio trees (Ohadi and Kaleh ghoochi cultivars) were collected by headspace method in the pistachio orchards and identified chromatographically (GC–MS). VOCs, including monoterpenes, esters, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, and aromatics, were identified in both cultivars, numbering 43 in the Ohadi cultivar and 37 in the Kaleh ghoochi. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-β-Ocimene (32.5%), limonene (14.8%) and methyl benzoate (12.1%) in the Ohadi cultivar and (E)-β-Ocimene (29.2%), limonene (20.1%) and α-Thujene (6.6%) in the Kaleh ghoochi. To study whether olfactory cues elicit responses in adult CPP, the odor of pistachio leaves (Ohadi cultivar) were offered in a Y-tube olfactometer to field-collected populations. Significant positive responses to volatiles of leaves were found in both males (P<0.03) and females (P<0.001). These data may be useful in semiochemically-based management strategies in the pistachio orchards such as mass trapping or deter of CPP or attraction of natural enemies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ester
  • Monoterpene
  • Olfactometery
  • Pistachio
  • Semiochemical
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