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اثر برخی آفت‌کش‌ها بر روی مینوز گوجه‌فرنگی (Lep.: Gelechiidae) Tuta absoluta و دو گونۀ زنبور پارازیتوئید (Hym:Trichogrammatidae) Trichogramma brassicae وT. evanescens

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه گیاهپزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مرکزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اراک، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 استاد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

پروانۀ مینوز گوجه‌فرنگی Tuta absoluta یکی از آفت‌های مهم گوجه‌فرنگی است. در این پژوهش اثر حشره‌کش‌های آبامکتین، امامکتین بنزوات، استامیپرید و فلوبندیامید روی دو مرحلۀ رشدی نابالغ حساس (لارو سن اول) و متحمل (شفیره) آفت و مرحلۀ بالغ دو گونۀ پارازیتوئید تخم آفت Trichogramma brassicae و T. evanescens مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. مینوز گوجه‌فرنگی از گلخانه‌های شهرستان اراک جمع‌آوری شد و پس از سه نسل پرورش در آزمایشگاه از مراحل لاروی و شفیرگی برای انجام زیست‌سنجی به روش غوطه‌وری استفاده شد. برای دو گونۀ تریکوگراما تیمار به روش لوله‌آزمایش انجام گرفت. مقدار LC50 حشره‌کش‌های آبامکتین، امامکتین بنزوات، استامیپرید و فلوبندیامید روی لارو سن اول مینوز گوجه‌فرنگی به ترتیب 92/0، 13/0، 51/1 و 34/0 میکروگرم بر میلی‌لیتر و برای شفیرۀ این آفت 99/4، 25/2، 22/3 و 48/3 میکروگرم بر میلی‌لیتر برآورد گردید. میزان LC50 آفت‏کش‏های یادشده برای حشره‏های کامل T. brassicaeبه ترتیب 0013/0، 0029/0، 0058/0 و 53/1 و برای حشره‏های کامل evanescensT. به ترتیب 0014/0، 0025/0، 0052/0 و 71/1 میکروگرم مادۀ تجاری بر میلی‌لیتر به دست آمد. بیشترین میزان پارازیتیسم تخم بید غلات برای هر دو گونه در روز دوم پس از پیدایش مشاهده شد به‌طوری‌که در گونۀT. brassicae پس از تیمار با فلوبندیامید، استامیپرید، امامکتین بنزوات و آبامکتین به ترتیب 17/0± 70/14، 20/0 ± 00/14، 20/0 ± 10/13 و 14/0± 80/11 تخم پارازیته شد و همگی تیمارها با شاهد (12/0 ±00/16) دارای اختلاف معنی‌دار بود. برای گونۀevanescensT. این اندازه‌ها به ترتیب 21/0± 10/13، 12/0 ± 37/12، 18/0 ± 50/11 و 16/0± 23/11 به دست آمد که همچنین با شاهد (19/0 ±00/14) اختلافمعنی‌دار نشان داد. ارزیابی نسبت خطر، فلوبندیامید را در گروه 2 سمیت (آفت‏کش‏های با سمیت کم تا میانه) و دیگر آفت‏کش‏ها مورد آزمایش را در گروه 3 (آفت‏کش‏ها با سمیت بسیار) قرار داد. با توجه به سمیت کمتر فلوبندیامید روی دو گونۀ زنبور پارازیتوئید و تأثیر کمتر آن بر میزان پارازیتیسم، به‌کارگیری این آفت‏کش در برنامه‌های مدیریت تلفیقی مینوز گوجه‌فرنگی امکان‌پذیر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of some insecticides against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and egg parasitoids Trichogramma brassicae and T. evanescens (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedigheh Ashtari 1 2
  • Qodratollah Sabahi 3
  • Khalil Talebi Jahromi 4
1 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran | Plant Protection Research Department, Markazi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Arak, Iran
2 Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran | Plant Protection Research Department, Markazi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Arak, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep.: Gelechiidae), is one of the most important pests of tomato in the world. In the current study, effects of four insecticides, abamectin, emamectin benzoate, acetamiprid, and flubendiamide were tested against 1st larval instar and pupae of the tomato leaf miner. Also, their lethal effects were studied on the adult stage of two species of egg parasitoids, i.e., Trichogramma brassicae and T. evanescens. The leaf miner collected from greenhouses near Arak (Markazi province, Iran) were reared for three generations under laboratory conditions and then treated by the leaf-dip method at larval or pupal stages. The parasitoids were tested by coated vial residue method. Insect mortality was recorded 24 h after initial exposure. The LC50 values of abamectin, emamectin benzoate, acetamiprid, and flubendiamide were 0.92, 0.13, 1.51, and 0.34 µg/ml, respectively for the 1st larval instar and 4.99, 2.25, 3.22, and 3.48 µg/ml, respectively for the pupae. Similarly, the LC50 values of the above-mentioned compounds were 0.0013, 0.0029, 0.0058, and 1.53 µg/ml, respectively for T. brassicae and 0.0014, 0.0025, 0.0052, and 1.71 µg/ml, respectively for T. evanescens. The maximum number of parasitized eggs was seen on the 2nd day after the emergence of both parasitoids. These amounts forT. brassicae after treatment by LC25 of flubendiamide, acetamiprid, emamectin, and abamectin, were 14.70 ± 0.17, 14.00 ± 0.20, 13.1 ± 0.20, and 11.8 ± 0.14, respectively which statistically differed with the control (16.00 ± 0.12). For T. evanescens, the related values were 13.10 ± 0.21, 12.37 ± 0.12, 11.50 ± 0.18, and 11.23 ± 0.16, respectively which differed meaningfully from the control (14.00 ± 0.19). Risk quotient categorized flubendiamide in class 2 (slightly harmful) and other compounds in class 3 (harmful). Based on our results, flubendiamide showed selectivity and it can be used as an effective tool for integrated pest management programs of tomato leaf miner.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Abamectin
  • Acetamiprid
  • Emamectin benzoate
  • Flubendiamide
  • Integrated pest management
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