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تأثیر کشت نواری بادنجان با سویا در تراکم کنۀ تارتن دولکه‏ ای Tetranychus urticae ، تنوع گونه‌ای دشمنان طبیعی آن و عملکرد محصول

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 دانشیار، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

در این پژوهش تأثیر سامانه‌های تک‌کشتی بادنجان (E) و سویا (S) و سه سامانۀ کشت نواری شامل دو ردیف بادنجان با چهار ردیف سویا (2E: 4S)، دو ردیف بادنجان با دو ردیف سویا (2E: 2S) و چهار ردیف بادنجان با دو ردیف سویا (4E: 2S) روی تراکم کنۀ تارتن دولکه‏ای، Tetranychus urticae Koch، تنوع و فراوانی شکارگرهای آن و عملکرد هر دو محصول در مزرعۀ آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی بررسی شد. در هر دو سال موردپژوهش، تراکم تخم‌ها و مراحل متحرک T. urticae روی گیاه بادنجان و سویا در هر سه سامانۀ کشت نواری در مقایسه با تک‌کشتی بادنجان و تک‌کشتی سویا به‌طور معنی‌داری کمتر بود (05/0P<). علاوه بر آن، در هر یک از سامانه‌های تک‌کشتی و کشت نواری تراکم تخم‌ها و مراحل متحرک T. urticae روی گیاه سویا به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از گیاه بادنجان بود. شاخص تنوع شانون (H') برای گونه‌های شکارگر T. urticae روی گیاه بادنجان در سامانه‌های کشت نواری در مقایسه با تک‌کشتی بادنجان به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر بود، ولی مقدار این شاخص روی گیاه سویا در تک‌کشتی سویا و سامانۀ کشت نواری 2E: 4S بیشتر از 2E: 2S و 4E: 2S بود (05/0P<). مقادیر نسبت برابری زمین (LER) در هر یک از دو سال مورد پژوهش در سامانۀ کشت نواری 2E: 4S بالاتر از سایر سامانه‌های کشت بود؛ بنابراین، می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که سامانۀ کشت نواری 2E: 4S مناسب‌ترین سامانۀ کشت برای استفاده در برنامه‌های مدیریت تلفیقی T. urticae در مزارع بادنجان و سویا است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of strip intercropping of eggplant with soybean on densities of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, species diversity of its natural enemies, and crop yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Kabiri Raeisabbad 1
  • Seyed Ali Asghar Fathi 2
  • Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani 2
  • Behnam Amiri-Besheli 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, the influence of eggplant monoculture (E), soybean monoculture (S), and three intercropping systems including two rows of eggplant with four rows of soybean (2E: 4S), two rows of eggplant with two rows of soybean (2E: 2S) and four rows of eggplant with two rows of soybean (4E: 2S) were studied on population densities of Tetranychus urticae Koch, diversity and abundance of its predators, and yield of both crops in an experimental field based on a randomized block design with four blocks during two cropping seasons (2016 - 2017). In both years, the densities of T. urticae eggs and mobile forms on eggplant and soybean were significantly lower in the three intercrops compared to monoculture systems (P < 0.05). Moreover, the densities of T. urticae eggs and mobile forms were significantly higher on the soybean than the eggplant in each monoculture and intercrop system. The Shannon’s diversity indexes (H') for T. urticae predators on eggplants were significantly higher in the three intercrops compared to the monoculture. Furthermore, the values of this index were greater in soybean monoculture and 2E: 4Sintercrop than 2E: 2Sand 4E: 2S systems (P < 0.05). Values of the land equivalent ratio (LER) were higher in 2E: 4S relative to other intercrop systems in both years. Therefore, it could be concluded that 2E: 4S intercrop is the most suitable cropping system for using in integrated management of T. urticae in eggplant and soybean fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Field experimental
  • Land equivalent ratio
  • predators
  • Shannon’s diversity index
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