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معرفی گونه‌های قارچ Fusarium همراه بذر برنج در استان‌های فارس و خوزستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

2 مربی مؤسسۀ تحقیقات برنج کشور، معاونت مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، آمل

3 استاد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج

4 استادیار بخش تحقیقات کنترل بیولوژیک، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران

5 استاد بخش تحقیقات رستنی‌ها، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران

چکیده

در جریان بازدید از شالیزارهای برنج استان­های فارس و خوزستان در مرحلۀ سفت شدن دانه­، 42 نمونه بذر گرد­آوری شد. برای جداسازی Fusariumاز نمونه­ها، بذرها روی محیط غذایی اختصاصی فوزاریوم (Pepton-PCNB-Agar, PPA) به دو روش ضدعفونی با محلول هیپوکلریت سدیم 1درصد و بدون ضدعفونی کشت و در انکوباتور (اتاقک رشد) با دمای 1±25 درجۀ سلسیوس و نور متناوب (روشنایی و تاریکی) نگهداری شدند. 26 جدایه بر اساس ویژگی‌های ریخت­شناختی روی محیط‌های کشت PDA، CLAو SNAو استفاده از منابع معتبر شناسایی شد. همچنین ارزیابی فیلوژنیک (تبارزایی) 18 و 6 جدایۀ منتخب بر اساس توالی ناحیۀ ژنی TEF1-αو توالی­ نوکلئوتیدی ناحیۀ ITSانجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد، جدایه­های Fusariumمورد بررسی، متعلق به دو گونۀ مرکب FIESC(Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex) و GFSC(Gibberella fujikuroi species complex)، به ترتیب با فراوانی50 و 46 درصد بودند. F. fujikuroiدر استان فارس و F. semitectumدر استان خوزستان بیشترین فراوانی را داشتند. در این تحقیق دو گونۀ F. fujikuroiو F. andiyaziمتعلق به گونۀ مرکب  GFSCبر اساس توالی ژن TEF1-α، در دو کلاد مجزا تفکیک شدند. توالی­یابی ناحیۀ ژنی TEF1-αبرای تفکیک و شناسایی اعضای گونۀ مرکب  GFSCمفید است اما توالی­ ناحیۀ ITSنتوانست این گونه­ها را شناسایی و از همدیگر تفکیک کند. تک جدایۀ F. merismoidesکه بر اساس ویژگی‌های ریخت­شناختی شناسایی شد، توسط توالی ژن TEF1-αشناسایی نشد اما در درخت فیلوژنیک رسم‌شده بر اساس توالی ناحیۀ  ITSاز جنس Fusariumتفکیک و به جنس Fusicollaو گونۀ F. acetilereaمنتقل شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Fusarium species associated with rice seed in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahid Khosravi 1 2
  • Mohammad Javan Nikkhah 3
  • Hossein Saremi 3
  • Shahram Naeimi 4
  • Rasoul Zare 5
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources,University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran | Instructor of Rice Research Institute, Mazandaran Branch, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Amol, Iran
2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources,University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran | Instructor of Rice Research Institute, Mazandaran Branch, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Amol, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources,University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Control Research, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
5 Professor, Department of Botany, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

During survey of rice fields in Fars and Khuzestan provinces at mature grain stage, 42 seed samples were collected. Fusarium isolates were obtained from these samples by planting seeds on selective Fusarium medium (Pepton-PCNB-Agar, PPA) by two methods i.e.; surface sterilization by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO 1%) and without disinfection. Cultivated samples were kept in incubator at 25±1° C and intermittent light (12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness). Morphological identification of 26 purified Fusarium isolates was performed on the WA, PDA, CLA and SNA. Phylogenetic relationships of 18 isolates on the basis of TEF1-α gene region and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences were investigated. The results revealed that Fusarium isolates belonged to two species complexes FIESC (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex, 50%) and GFSC (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, 46%). Fusarium fujikuroi species in Fars and F. semitectum species in Khuzestan were most frequent. Two species F. fujikuroi and F. andiyazi belonging to the GFSC species complex were identified in two separate clades in phylogentic tree based on TEF1-α. On the basis of TEF1-α gene, F. merismoides was not identified, but the ITS region sequence was identified as Fusicolla acetilerea and differentiated this species from Fusarium species in the phylogenetic tree.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mycobiota
  • seedborne
  • phylogeny
  • pathogen
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