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ارزیابی مقاومت برخی ارقام گندم نسبت به بیماری پاخوره غلات

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

2 دانشیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

3 استادیار پژوهشی بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه

4 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

چکیده

بیماری پاخوره با عامل Gaeumannomyces graminis var tritici (Ggt)مخرب‌ترین بیماری ریشۀ غلات در سراسر جهان است. این بیماری از نقاط مختلف ایران از جمله کرمانشاه گزارش شده است. در این پژوهش به‌منظور ارزیابی مقاومت ارقام گندم، 17 رقم رایج گندم در استان کرمانشاه با مخلوطی از چهار جدایۀ منتخب Ggt مایه‌زنی و مقاومت آن‌ها در شرایط مزرعه بررسی شد. کاشت ارقام طی سال زراعی 91-90 در پلات‌هایی به ابعاد 100×50 سانتی‌متر انجام شد. برای ارزیابی مقاومت و تحمل، صفات عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی، وزن هزار دانه، وزن تر ریشه، وزن تر اندام هوایی، وزن تر کل، وزن خشک ریشه، وزن خشک اندام هوایی، وزن خشک کل، درصد آلودگی ریشه، تعداد پنجه در بوته و تعداد دانه در خوشه بررسی شد. در این پژوهش، شاخص‌های مختلف تنش از جمله شاخص حساسیت به تنش (SSI)، شاخص تحمل تنش (STI)، شاخص عملکرد (YI) و میانگین هارمونیک (HAM) محاسبه شدند. بر اساس پارامتر RS که دربرگیرندۀ تمامی شاخص‌ها است، ارقام مرودشت، پارسی و افلاک به‌عنوان ارقام متحمل و ارقام سرداری، سیوند، شیراز و الوند به‌عنوان ارقام حساس شناخته شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of resistance of some wheat cultivars to the take-all disease

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedigheh Mohammadi kohnehshahri 1
  • Saeed Abbasi 2
  • Mahyar Sheikholeslami 3
  • Sohbat Bahraminejad 4
  • Darioush Safaei 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Protection, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Kermanshah Province, Kermanshah, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and plant breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Take-all disease, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is the most devastating root disease of cereals throughout the world. The disease has been reported from different regions of Iran, including Kermanshah province. To evaluate current wheat cultivars for resistance or tolerance to take-all disease, 17 wheat cultivars were inoculated by a mixture of four selected isolates of Ggt and their resistance was evaluated under field conditions. In the spring of 2012, these cultivars were sown in microplots with 100×50 cm dimensions. The inoculum, prepared on autoclaved oat seeds, were added to every row of sowing and then covered with soil. Different traits including grain yield, biological yield, thousand grain weight, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, total fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, percent of diseased rootlets, number of tillers, number of grains in the spike, weight of grains in 1 m rows, average weight of grains in the spike, total dry weight, harvest index, and grain yield in 1 m2 were recorded and analyzed. In this study, different stress indices including stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), yield index (YI), and Harmonic mean (HAM) were calculated. Based on the RS parameter, which includes all the indices, Marvdasht, Parsi, and Aflak were introduced as tolerant cultivars. Moreover, Sardari, Sivand, Shiraz, and Alvand were identified as susceptible cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gaeumannomyces graminis
  • Kermanshah
  • tolerance
  • wheat take-all
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