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سبب‌شناسی بیماری زوال درختان مرکبات با پایۀ بکرایی در جنوب استان کرمان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت، ایران

3 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات ویروس‌شناسی، مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

4 استاد، بخش علوم کشاورزی و محیطی، دانشگاه میلان، میلان، ایتالیا

چکیده

عارضۀ نوظهور زوال سریع در سال‌های اخیر سبب مرگ تعداد زیادی از درختان مرکبات با پایۀ بکرایی در جنوب استان کرمان شده است. علائم این بیماری به‌صورت پژمردگی برگ‌ها، پوسیدگی ریشه‌ها و مرگ سریع درختان مشاهده می‌شود. این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی عوامل بیماری مذکور انجام شد. حضور پروکاریوت‌های بیماری‌زای گیاهی با انجام واکنش زنجیره‌ای پلیمراز با استفاده از آغازگرهای عمومی و اختصاصی و هم‌چنین با استفاده از سامانۀ Miseq بررسی شد. ردیابی ویروس‌ها و ویروئیدها با استفاده از آزمون‌های ELISA، RT-PCR و مایه‌زنی به گیاهان محک و همچنین جداسازی dsRNA از نمونه‌های گیاهی انجام شد. همراهی نماتد Tylenchulus semipenetrans و شبه قارچ Phytophthora nicotiana با جداسازی و ارزیابی جمعیت این بیمارگرها در ریشه و ریزوسفر درختان بیمار و مقایسه آن با درختان بدون علائم بررسی شد. درمجموع، نتایج این پژوهش نشان‌دهندۀ همراهی Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus با بیماری زوال سریع درختان مرکبات با پایۀ بکرایی در جنوب استان کرمان است. به‌علاوه وجود تنش‌های خشکی و دمایی و آلودگی هم‌زمان درختان بیمار به Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia، شبه قارچ Phytophthora nicotiana و نماتد Tylenchulus semipenetrans می‌تواند منجر به تشدید بیماری و تسریع در زوال درختان شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Etiology of quick decline disease of citrus on Bakraee (Citrus sp.) rootstock in southern Kerman

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Azadvar 1
  • Hamidreza Alizadeh 2
  • Mohammad Reza Safarnejad 3
  • Mousa Najafinia 1
  • Piero Atellio Bianco 4
1 Assistant Professor, Plant Protection Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Kerman, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Viruses, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, AREEO, Tehran, Iran
4 Professor, University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan, Italy
چکیده [English]

The emerged citrus quick decline disease has destroyed many of citrus plants grafted onto Bakraee rootstock in southern Kerman during recent years. Disease symptoms are included leaf wilting, root rot, and quick decline. In this project, the etiology of quick decline disease was studied. Symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were tested for the presence of plant pathogenic prokaryotes using PCR with universal and specific primers, and Miseq Illumina method. Furthermore, ELISA, RT-PCR, inoculation on index plants, and dsRNA extraction were used for detection of viruses and viroids in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. The correlation between the presence of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Phytophthora nicotiana, and quick decline disease was investigated by isolation and quantification of pathogens from root and rhizosphere of asymptomatic and infected plants. Overall, results indicated the association of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus with citrus (on Bakraee rootstock) quick decline disease in southern Kerman. In addition, drought and heat stresses and co-infection of the diseased plants by Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia, Phytophthora nicotiana, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans lead to severe symptoms of the disease and accelerated the decline of the infected plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bakraee
  • Greening
  • liberibacter
  • phytoplasma
  • root rot
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