c3518cb17d976b8

مقایسه بیماریزایی بیمارگرهای عامل سرخشکیدگی و زوال درختان بلوط در استان کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

2 گروه گیاهپزشکی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

3 دانشگاه رازی

چکیده

بیماری زوال و خشکیدگی سرشاخه‌های درختان بلوط یک بیماری مهم در جنگل‌های زاگرس ایران محسوب می‌شود. وجود Paecilomyces formosus، Biscogniauxia mediterrane و Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae همراه با علائم زوال و سرخشکیدگی درختان بلوط در جنگل‌های استان کرمانشاه، ویژگی‌های مولکولی و مقایسه بیماریزایی بیمارگرها بررسی شد. در بررسی مولکولی با استفاده از ابزار جستجوی بلاست، هر سه بیمارگر همپوشانی و همولوژی ۱۰۰ درصدی با گونه‌های مذکور موجود در بانک ژن نشان دادند. در ارزیابی بیماریزایی مشخص شد که تمام جدایه‌های این سه بیمارگر قادر به ایجاد شانکر روی شاخه‌های بریده و نهال‌های مایه زنی شده درختان بلوط هستند. در اثبات بیماریزایی روی شاخه بریده سایر درختان جنگلی نیز هر سه گونه قادر به ایجاد علائم شانکر بودند. در مقایسه بیماریزایی روی نهال‌های دو ساله تحت تنش خشکی، از نظر سرعت پیشرفت علائم بیماری اختلاف معنی داری بین این سه گونه وجود داشت، بطوریکه B. mediterrane در زمان کوتاهتری روی نهال‌های مایه زنی شده در شرایط تنش خشکی علائم ایجاد کرد. گونه P. formosus نسبت به دو گونه دیگر با سرعت کمتری روی نهال‌های مایه زنی شده علائم ایجاد کرد. علائم روی نهال‌های بلوط مایه‌زنی شده با این بیمارگرها به‌صورت شانکر ایجاد شد که به سمت بالا و پایین ناحیه مایه‌زنی شده پیشروی مشاهده شد. جهت تکمیل اصول کخ، جداسازی مجدد صورت گرفت. بررسی تاثیر دما بر رشد شعاعی گونه‌های بیمارگر نشان داد که هر سه گونه گرمادوست بوده و احتمال ارتباط این بیمارگرها با پدیده خشکسالی و گرمایش جهانی وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Pathogenicity evaluation of pathogenic fungi causing of oak tree dieback in Kermanshah province

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad sabernasab 1
  • Alireza marefat 2
  • saeed Abbasi 3
1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
3 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Oak dieback is one of the most important diseases that presently affects the Zagros oak forests (Northwest to Southeast of Iran). The presence of Paecilomyces formosus, Biscogniauxia mediterranea and Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae associated with oak trees that show dieback and declining symptoms in the forests of Kermanshah province and the molecular and pathogenic characteristics of these pathogenic isolates were investigated. In molecular analysis using blast search tools, all three pathogens showed homology of 100% with the mentioned species in the GenBank. Pathogenicity test revealed that all isolates of these three pathogens were capable of producing cancers on detached branches and inoculated seedlings of oak trees. Our results showed that all three species obtained from oak trees could produce cankers on excised branches of other trees. In comparison with pathogenicity on two-years-old seedlings under drought stress, there was a significant difference between the three species in terms of the rate of disease progression, so that B. mediterranea caused symptoms on seedlings inoculated under drought stress in a shorter time. P. formosus caused symptoms in longer period on the inoculated seedlings than the other two species. After inoculation, all cankers that extended upward and downward from the point of inoculation were evident on stems of all inoculated seedlings. Re-isolation was performed, and isolates were compared to original cultures providing evidence for fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Investigation of the effect of temperature on radial growth of pathogenic species showed that all three species are thermophilic fungi, which may be related to warming and drought.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biscogniauxia mediterranea
  • Molecular identification
  • Oak
  • Iran
1. Alizadeh, A., Alaei, H. & Ershad, J. (1999). Review etiology of dieback of pistachio trees in Rafsenjan. Journal of Modares Agricultural Science, 1(2), 53–63.
2. Allen, C.D., Macalady, A.K., Chenchouni, H. Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Kitzberger, T. & et al. (2010). A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology Management, 259, 660–684.
3. Axelrod, D.I. (1983). Biogeography of oaks in the Arcto-Tertiary province. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 629-657.
4. Burnett, H. & Hunter, B.B., (1987).  Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. Burgess Publishing Company: Minneapolis, MN, USA.
5. Braithwaite, M., Inglis, C., Dick, M.A., Ramsfield, T.D., Waipara, N.W., Beever, R.E., Pay, J.M. & Hill, C.F. (2007). Investigation of oak tree decline in the Auckland region. New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc.) www.nzpps.org.
6. Butin, H. (1995). Tree diseases and disorders. Causes, biology and control in forest and amenity tress. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
7. Coombs, A.J. (1999). Trees. Dorlins kindersly Book, London.
8. Crepet, W.L. & Nixon, K.C. (1989). Extinct transitional Fagaceae from the Oligocene and their phylogenetic implications. American Journal of Botany, 1493-1505.
9. De Hoog, G.S., Guarro, J. Gene, J. & Figueras, M.J. (2000). Atlas of clinical fungi. 2nd ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures/ Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Utrecht. 1126 p.
10. Gardes, M. & Bruns, T.D. (1993). ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes: application to identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology 2:113–118.
11. Guarín, A. & Taylor, A.H. (2005). Drought triggered tree mortality in mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Forest Ecology Management, 218, 229–244.
12. Halliwell, R.S. (1996). Association of Cephalosporium with a decline of oak in Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 50, 75-78.
13. Heaey, A., Haidari, R. Pakbaz, B. & Aghazadeh, M. (2007). Measurement of tannins in four genotypes of Quercus infectoria olive and oak gall powder in wound healing. Medical Aromatic Plant Research of Iran, 21, 433–441.
14. Heidarian, R., Fotouhifar, Kh., Mohammadi, A. & Javan-Nikkhah, M. 2017. Identification of mating type idiomorphs in Paecilomyces formosus, the causal agent of die-back disease in pistachio and some other hosts and investigation on the possibility of in vitro sexual reproduction. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 48 (2), 295-305.
15. HosseinZadeh, G., Aazame, A. & Mohammadpur, M. (2015). Investigate the factors associated with the spread of oak decline ups and downs in the Black Forest Ham attack. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 1, 190-197.
16. Houbraken, J., Verweij, P.E., Rijs, A.J., Borman, A.M. & Samson, R.A. (2010). Identification of Paecilomyces variotii in clinical samples and settings. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 48, 2754–2761.
17. Jamali, S. & Banihashemi, Z. (2010). The pathological and physiological study of Nattrassia mangiferae the cause of shade trees decline in Shiraz city. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 46, 35-36.
18. Jamali, S. 2017. First record of Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae on ash and maple trees in Iran. in: Proceedings of 3nd Iranian Mycological Congress, 26-28 Aug, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran, p. 111.
19. Jazirehi, M. & Rostaghi, M.E. (2003). Forest of the Zagros, Tehran University Press, Iran. 222 p.
20. Jimenez-Fernández, D., Navas-Cortés, J.A., Montes-Borrego, M., Jiménez-Díaz, R.M. & Landa, B.B. (2011). Molecular and pathogenic characterization of Fusarium redolens, a new causal agent of Fusarium yellows in chickpea. Plant Disease, 95(7), 860–870.
21. Khouja, M.L., Ben Jamaa, M.L., Franceschini, A., Khaldi, A., Nouri, N., Sellemi, H. & Hamrouni, L. (2010). Observations on tree decline of different cork oak (Quercus suber L.) provenances in the experimental site of Tebaba, North-western Tunisia. IOBC/wprs Bulletin, 57, 53-59.
22. Lynch, S.C., Eskalen, A., Zambino, P.J. & Mayorquin, J.S. (2013). Identification and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) decline in southern California. Mycologia, 105(1), 125–140.
23. Mirabolfathy, M., Groenewald, J.Z. & Crous, P.W. (2011). The occurrence of charcoal disease caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea on chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia) in the Golestan forests of Iran. Plant Disease, 95, 876.
24. Mirabolfathy, M. (2013). Outbreak of charcoal disease on Quercus spp. and Zelkova carpinifolia trees in forest of Zagros and Alborz mountains in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 49, 77-79.
25. Moore, M. K. (1988). Morphological and physiological studies of isolates of Hendersonula toruloidea Nattrass cultured from human skin and nail samples. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 26, 25-39.
26. Pavlic, D., Wingfield, M.J., Barber, P., Slippers, B., Hardy, G.E.S.J. & Burgess, T.I. (2008). Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia. Mycologia, 100, 851–866.
27. Rajablou, M. (2009). Using acorn-fed animals. Internal newsletter Agricultural Organization of Golestan province, 7, 4.
28. Rinaldi, S., Fiscarelli, E. & Rizzoni, G. (2000). Paecilomyces variotii peritonitis in an infant on automated peritoneal dialysis. Pediatric Nephrology, 14, 365–366.
29. Safaee, D., Khodaparast, S.A., Mirabolfathy, M. & Sheikholeslami, M. 2017. Some aspects of biology and host range of Biscogniauxia mediterranea, one of the causal agent of oak charcoal disease. Mycologia Iranica,4(2), 121 – 129.
30. Salle, V., Lecuyer, E. Chouaki, T. Lescure, F.X. Smail, A. A. Vaidie, Dayen, C., Schmit, J.L., Ducroix, J.P. & Douadi, Y. (2005). Paecilomyces variotii fungemia in a patient with multiple myeloma: Case report and literature review. Journal of Infection, 51, 93–95.
31. Samson, R.A. (1974). Paecilomyces and some allied hyphomycetes. Studies in Mycology, 6, 119 p.
32. Samson, R.A., Houbraken, J., Varga, J. & Frisvad, J.C. (2009). Polyphasic taxonomy of the heat resistant ascomycete genus Byssochlamys and its Paecilomyces anamorphs. Persoonia,22, 14–27.
33. Schmith, O. (2006). Wood and tree biology, damage, protection and use. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 336 p.
34. Simonin, G., Cochard, H., Delatour, C., Granier, A. & Dreyer, E. (1994). Vulnerability of young oak seedlings (Quercus robur L) to embolism: responses to drought and to an inoculation with Ophiostoma querci (Georgevitch) Nannf. Annals of Forest Science, 51, 493-504.
35. Sousa, E., Santos, M.N., Varela, M.C. & Henriques, J. (2007). Perda do vigor dos montados de sobro e azinho: análise da situação e perspectivas (Documento síntese). MADRP; DGRF; INRB, I.P., 80 pp.
36. Sutton, B.C. & Dyko, B.J. (1989). Revision of Hendersonula. Mycological Research, 93 (4), 466-488.
37. Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. 2011. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731-2739.
38. Van de Peer, Y. & De Wachter, R. (1997). Evolutionary relationships among the eukaryotic crown taxa taking into account site-to-site rate variation in 18S rRNA. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 45(6), 619-30.
39. White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Gelfland DH, Innis M.A., Sninsky J.J., 35. White T.J. (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp, 315–322.