عنوان مقاله [English]
Grape powdery mildew (GPM) caused by plant pathogenic fungus Erysiphe necator, is the most widespread disease on grapevine in worldwide including Iran. Temporal analysis of disease epidemics was carried out by evaluating GPM in 30 vineyards in three cities of Sistan region, includeing Zabol, Zahak and Hamoon during 2017 and 2018. Field survey of vineyards to record disease incidence (I) and severity (S) was started from plant growth onset to harvest time, weekly program. Disease progress curves (DPCs) were evaluated by mathematical growth models including Linear, Monomolecular, Logistic, Log-logistic and Gompertz and their goodness of fit determined based on such statistics as coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted R2 (aR2)and standard error of estimates (SEE). Result showed that in total two years, for three variables of disease including: disease incidence, leaf disease severity and fruit disease severity, the Monomolecular model was fitted with 100, 100 and 98.33% of studied epidemics respectively. Means R2 of this model for three disease variables, calculated 91.64%, 89.60% and 90.27% respectively and this model was selected as the most appropriate model for describe GPM progress in Sistan region for two studied years.Also in total of two years rates of increase (rm) per unit of disease in the vineyards for three disease variables were 0.016, 0.004 and 0.005 respectively. This research is conducted for the first time in the region of Sistan and Iran.
10. Bendek, C. E., Campbell, P. A., Torres, R., Donoso, A. & Latorre, B. A. (2007). The risk assessment index in grape powdery mildew control decisions and the effect of temperature and humidity on conidial germination of Erysiphenecator. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(4), 522-532.
11. Bowen, K. L. (1997) Francl, L. J. and Neher, D. A. (eds.), Analytical Models of Disease Progression: Excercises in Plant Disease Epidemiology. (pp. 16-19). APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
12. Bowers, J. H. & Kinkel, L. L. (1997) Francle, L. J., and Neher, D. A. (eds), Interactive modeling of disease progress curves: Exercises in plant disease epidemiology. (pp. 20-23).The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul. MN.pp. 233.
13. Bulit, J. & Lafon, R. (1978) Spencer. D.M. (eds.), Powdery Mildew of the Vine:
The powdery mildews. (pp. 525-548). Academic Press. New York.
14. Calonnec, A., Cartolro, P., Poupot, C., Dubourdieu, D. & Darriet, P. (2004). Effects of Uncinula necator on the yield and quality of grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wine. Plant Pathology, 53, 434-445.
15. Calonnec, A., Cartolaro, P., Delière, L. & Chadoeuf, J. (2006). Powdery mildew on grapevine: the date of primary contamination affects disease development on leaves and damage on grape. Integrated Protection in Viticulture, 29(11), 67-73.
16. Calonnec, A., Cartolaro, P., Naulin, J. M., Bailey, D. & Langlais, M. (2008). A host-pathogen simulation model: powdery mildew of grapevine. Plant Pathology, 57, 493-508.
17. Calonnec, A., Cartolaro, P. & Chadœuf, J. (2009). Highlighting features of spatio temporal spread of powdery mildew epidemics in the vineyard using statistical modeling on field experimental data. Phytopathology, 99, 411-422.
18. Camann, M. A., Culbreath, A. K., Pickering, J., Todd, J. W. & Demski, J. W. (1995). Spatial and temporal patterns of spotted wilt epidemics in peanut. Phytopathology, 85, 879-885.
19. Campbell, C. L. & Madden, L. V. (1990). Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 532 p.
20. Cardoso, J. E., Santos, A. A., Rossetti, A. G. & Vidal, J. C. (2004). Relationship between incidence and severity of cashew gummosis in semiarid north-eastern Brazil. Plant Pathology, 53, 363-367.
21. Carisse, O., Bacon, R. & Lefebvre, A. (2009). Grape poedery midew (Erysiphe necator) risk assessment based on airborne conidium concentration. Crop Protection, 28, 1036-1044.
22. Carroll, J. E. & Wilcox, W. F. (2003). Effects of humidity on the development of grapevine powdery mildew. Phytopathology, 93, 1137-1144.
23. Choudhury, R. A., Mahaffee, W. F., McRoberts, N. & Gubler, W. D. (2018). Modeling uncertainty in grapevine powdery mildew epidemiology using fuzzy logic. Plant Disease. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/264622 .
24. Contreras-Medina, L. M., Torres-Pacheco, I., Guevara-González, R. G., Romero-Troncoso, R. J., Terol-Villalobos, I. R. & Osornio-Rios, R. A.(2009). Mathematical modeling tendencies in plant pathology. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(25), 7399-7408.
25. Cooke, B. M., Gareth Jones, D. & Kaye, B. (2006) Modelling and interpreting disease progress in time: The Epidemiology of Plant Diseases (pp. 215-235). 2nd edition, Springer. Netherlands.
26. Delp, C. L. (1954). Effect of temperature and humidity on the grape powdery mildew fungus. Phytopathology, 44, 515-525.
27. Fathi, H. & Karbalaei-Khiavi, H. (2012). Study of biology and epidemiology of Uncinula necator caused powdery mildew disease. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2(3), 56-61.
28. Ferreira, M. A., Harrington, T. C., Gongora-Canul, C. C., Mafia, R. G., Zauza, E. A. V. & Alfenas, A. C. (2013). Spatial–temporal patterns of Ceratocystis wilt in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. Forest Pathology, 43, 153–164.
29. Fessler, C. & Kassemeyer, H. H. (1995). The influence of temperature during the development of conidia on the germination of Uncinula necator. Vitis, 34, 63-64.
30. Gadoury, D. M., Seem, R. C., Ficke, A. & Wilcox, W. F. (2001). The epidemiology of powdery mildew on Concord grapes. Phytopathology, 91,948-955.
31. Gadoury, D. M., Cadle-Davidson, L., Wilcox, W. F., Dry, I. B., Seem, R. C. & Milgroom, M. G. (2012). Grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator): a fascinating system for the study of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of an obligate biotroph. Molecular Plant Pathology, 13(1), 1-16.
32. Halleen, F. & Holz, G. (2001). An overview of biology, epidemiology and control of Uncinula necator (powdery mildew) on grapevine, with reference to South Africa. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 22(2), 111-121.
33. Hammett, K. R. W. & Manners, J. G. (1971). Conidium liberation in Erysiphe graminis. I. Visual and statistical analysis of spore trap records. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 56, 387-401.
34. Hammett, K. R. W. & Manners, J. G. (1974). Conidium liberation in Erysiphe graminis. III. Wind tunnel studies. Transactions of the British MycologicalSociety, 62, 267–282.
35. Hao, J. J. & Subbarao, K. V. (2005). Comparative analyses of lettuce drop epidemics caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 89,717-725.
36. Heffer, V., Johnson, K. B. Powelson, M. L. & Shishkoff, N. (2006). Identification of Powdery Mildew Fungi anno 2006. The Plant Health Instructor.
37. Karbalaei-Khiavi, H., Shikhlinskiy, H., BabaeiAhari, A. & Akrami, M. (2012). Evaluation of different grape varieties for resistance to powdery mildew caused by Uncinula necator. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(29), 4182-4186.
38. Karbalaei-Khiavi, H., Shikhlinski, H., BabaeiAhari, A., Heydari, A. & Akrami, M. (2012a). Study on the Biology and Epidemiology of Uncinula necator—The Causal Agent of Grape Powdery Mildew Disease. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 1, 574-579.
39. Kast, W. K. & Bleyer, K. (2011). Efficacy of sprays against grapevine powdery mildiew. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93, (1, Supplement) S1.29-S1.32.
40. Khabazejolafaii, H. (2015). Identification and Management of Powdery Mildew and Downy Mildew of Grape. Iranian Institute of Plant Protection Research. Promotional Journal. pp. 22.
41. Kohkan, Sh. A., Ghanbari, A., Asgharipour, M. R. and Fakheri, B. A. (2017). Emergy evaluation of Yaghuti grape of Sistan. Arid Biome Scientific and Research Journal,7(2), 73-84 (in Persian with English Summary).
42. Lang, M. D. & Evans, K. J. (2010). Epidemiology and status of walnut blight in Australia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92(1), 49-55.
43. Magarey, P. A., Magarey, R. D. & Emmett R. W. (2000) Willer H, Meier U, )eds(, Principles for managing the foliage diseases of grapevine with low input of pesticides: Proceedings 6th International Congress on Organic Viticulture. (pp. 140-148). Frick, Switzerland: FiBL.
44. Magarey, P. A. (2010). Managing Powdery Mildew (Doing it better). Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation. GWRDC Innovators Network. www.gwrdc.com.au.
45. Meteorological Statistics. (2018). Statistics unit of Sistan and Baluchestan meteorological office.
46. Miclot, A., Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, S., Duchêne, E., Merdinoglu, D. & Mestre, P. (2012). A standardised method for the quantitative analysis of resistance to grapevine powdery mildew. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 133, 483–495.
47. Moyer, M. M., Gadoury, D. M., Magarey, P. A., Wilcox, W. F. & Seem, R. C. (2010). Development of an advisory system for grapevine powdery mildew in eastern North America: A reassessment of epidemic progress. Online. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2010-0526-02-SY.
48. Nutter, F. W., Jr. (2007) A. Ciancio and K. G. Mukerji, (eds), The role of plant disease epidemiology in developing successful integrated disease management programs: General Concepts in Integrated Pestand Disease Management. (pp. 45-79). Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
49. Olanya, O. M. & campbell, C. L. (1990). Analysis of epidemics of leptophaerulina leaf spot on alfalfa and white clover in time and space. Phytopathology, 80,1341-1347.
50. Rocha, H. S., Pozza, E. A., Uchoa, C. D. N., Cordeiro, Z. J. M., Souza, P. E. D., Sussel, A. A. B. & Rezende, C. A. D. (2012). Temporal progress of yellow sigatoka and aerobiology of Mycosphaerella musicola spores. Journal of Phytopathology, 160(6), 277-285.
51. Sall, M. A. (1980). Epidemiology of grape powdery mildew: a model. Phytopathology,70, 338-342.
52. Salman, M., Hawamda, A. A., Al-AshqarAmarni, A., Rahil, M., Hajjeh, H., Natsheh, B. & Abuamsha, R. )2011(. Evaluation of the Incidence and Severity of Olive Leaf Spot Caused by Spilocaeaoleagina on Olive Trees in Palestine. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2(3), 457-460.
53. Shahrokhnia, M. A. & Karami, M. J. (2017). Effect of different amounts of irrigation water on the yield of Yaghuti grape. Journal of water and irrigation engineering, 7(28), 108-122 (in Persian with English Summary).
54. Singh, P. N., Singh, S. K., Tetali, S. P. & Lagashetti, A. C. (2017). Biocontrol of powdery mildew of grapesusing culture filtrate and biomass of fungal isolates. Plant Pathology and Quarantine, 7(2), 181–189.
55. Sisterson, M. S., Ledbetter, C. A., Chen, J., Higbee, B. S., Groves, R. L. & Daane, K. M. (2012). Management of almond leaf scorch disease: Long-term data on yield, tree vitality, and disease progress. Plant Disease, 96, 1037-1044.
56. Soto-Estrada, A. & Adaskaveg, J. E. (2004). Temporal and quantitative analyses of stem lesion development and foliar disease progression of peach rust in California. Phytopathology, 94,52-60.
57. Thiessen, L. D., Neill, T. M. & Mahaffee, W. F. (2017). Timing Fungicide Application Intervals Based on Airborne Erysiphe necator Concentrations. Plant Disease, 101, 1246-1252.
58. Voytovich, K. A. (1987). New complex resistant table grape cultivars and methods for breeding. Kartya Moldovenyaske, Kishinev, Moldova. pp. 225.
59. Wicks, T., Hitch, C. & Hall, B. (2002). Controlling Powdery Mildew: What to spray and When? The Australian Journal of Grapeand Wine Research, 59,132-139.
60. Willocquet, L., Colombet, D., Rougier, M., Fargues, J. & Clerjeau, M. (1996). Effects of radiation, especially ultraviolet B, on conidial germination and mycelial growth of grape powdery mildew. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102, 441- 449.
61. Willocquet, L., Berud, F., Raoux, L. & Cllerjeau, M. (1998). Effects of wind, relative humidity, leaf movement and colony age on dispersal of conidia of Uncinulla necator, causal agent of grape powdery mildew. Plant Pathology, 47, 234-242.
62. Willocquet, L. & Clerjeau, M. (1998). An analysis of the effects of environmental factors on conidial dispersal of Uncinula necator (grape powdery mildew) in vineyards. Plant Pathology, 47, 227–233.
63. Zadehdabagh, G., Shafeizarghar, A. & Barzkar, M. (2016). Evaluation of important diseases of grapes and environmental stresses in grape vines Khuzestan. First National Symposium on Small Fruits, September 2015, Bu Ali Sina University.