نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشگاه رازی

2 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی

3 استادیار گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشگاه رازی

4 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه


پاخورۀ گندم با عامل Gaeumannomyces tritici یکی از بیماری‌های مهم ریشۀ گندم در تمام جهان است. در این پژوهش، اثر ترکیبی عناصر غذایی و سویه بیوکنترلی Bacillus subtilis GB03 روی رشد گندم و درصد آلودگی ریشه ارزیابی شد. ابتدا، تجزیه خاک انجام شد و بر اساس نتایج آن و بررسی منابع، عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر، آهن، روی و مس در غلظت‌های مختلف مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. آزمایش در شرایط گل‌خانه و به مدت 35 روز انجام شد. تیمار باکتری به صورت آغشته‌سازی بذر و خاک صورت گرفت. در این میان، فسفر بیش‌ترین اثر را در مهار بیماری ایفا نمود. افزایش کود سوپرفسفات تریپل، درصد آلودگی ریشه را تا 14/51 درصد کاهش داد. باکتری این اثر را تا 50/71 درصد افزایش ‌داد؛ به نحوی که حتی در کم‌ترین سطح کود سبب مهار کامل علائم روی طوقه ‌شد. نیتروژن در اولین سطح به‌کار رفته (50 میلی‌گرم اوره بر کیلوگرم خاک)، درصد آلودگی ریشه را 35 درصد کاهش داد. آهن اثر قابل توجه‌ای در مهار بیماری داشت و در اولین سطح به‌کار رفته، بیماری را از 5/60 درصد شاهد به 46 درصد کاهش داد. روی در سطح دوم و در تعامل با باکتری قادر بود علائم بیماری را به صورت معنی‌داری کاهش دهد. مس نیز قادر بود علائم بیماری را تا 4/18 درصد کاهش دهد و بیش‌ترین اثر بالاتر از سطح پنج میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک دیده ‌شد. مس اثر متقابل مثبتی با باکتری در بهبود صفات رشدی گندم داشت. در مجموع می‌توان گفت میزان اثر عناصر با فراهمی آن‌ها در خاک مرتبط بود.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Suppression of wheat take-all (Gaeumannomyces tritici) using a combination of Bacillus subtilis GB03 and several important nutrients in soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fereshteh Saeed sarvbabaei 1
  • Saeed Abbasi 2
  • Rouhallah Sharifi 3
  • Ali Beheshti al-agha 4

1 Department of Plant Protection, Razi University, Kermanshah

2 department of plant protection, college of agriculture. Razi university

3 Assistant professor of Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, Razi University, Kermanshah

4 Assistant professor of Soil Biology, Department of Soil science, Razi University, Kermanshah

چکیده [English]

Take-all disease caused by Gaeumannomyces tritici is an important crown and root rot disease of wheat throughout the world. In this work, a combination of fertilizers and Bacillus subtilis GB03 were examined on wheat growth and percentage of the infected root. Soil physical and chemical properties have been analyzed in the first step. Different concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, Fe, Zn, and Cu have been selected based on soil analysis data and literature review. The effect of combining bacteria and fertilizers was tested in a greenhouse for 35 days. The bacteria was applied as seed bacterization and post-planting drench. Among fertilizers, Phosphorus showed the greatest effect on control of this disease. Triple superphosphate linearly reduced the percentage of root infection to 51.14%. Bacteria enhanced inhibition activity of phosphorus by 71.50%; so that the symptoms on crown have been eliminated even at the lowest levels of fertilizer (25 mg per kg of soil). The lowest level of Nitrogen (50 mg urea/Kg of soil) reduced root infection percent up to 35%. Iron fertilizer had an outstanding effect on disease inhibition and reduced the disease from 60.5 to 46% in its lowest level (1.3 mg/Kg of soil). A combination of bacteria and the second level of Zn concentration decreased disease symptoms, significantly. Cu fertilizer decreased disease symptoms to 18.4%. Its effect was significant in more than 5 mg/Kg of soil. This fertilizer improved growth factors in combination with bacteria. In conclusion, the effect of nutrients was dependent on their availability in tested soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Biological control. Fertilizer
  • Take-all
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