شناسایی منابع مقاومت به عامل بیماری زنگ قهوه‌ای (Puccinia triticina Erikss.) در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم بومی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات دانشکدگان کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد اصلاح نباتات دانشکدگان کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

3 اشتادیار موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 دانشیار اصلاح نباتات دانشکدگان کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

5 استاد یار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه


شناسایی منابع ژن‌های مقاومت گیاهچه‌ای و گیاه کامل برای هرمی کردن ژن‌ها، آرایش ژنی و ایجاد ارقام گندم دارای مقاومت پایدار، برای کنترل زنگ قهوه‌ای گندم، با عامل .Puccinia triticinea Erickss امری ضروری است. در این پژوهش تعداد 218 ژنوتیپ گندم بومی ایران که از مناطق مختلف جمع‌آوری شده بود، در مزرعه آزمایشی ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی گلستان اهواز طی سال 99-1398 به صورت خطوط یک متری کشت شده و با پاتوتیپ‌های شایع زنگ قهوه‌ای خوزستان شامل LR-98-8، LR-98-14، LR-94-5 و LR-97-4 تیمار شدند. واکنش گیاهچه‌ای نیز در گلخانه‌های واحد بیماری‌شناسی غلات موسسه اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج با پنج پاتوتیپ شایع ایران در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با دو تکرار انجام شد. برای ارزیابی مقاومت از شاخص‌هایی تیپ آلودگی، سطح زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری، شدت نهایی آلودگی و ضریب آلودگی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که به ترتیب 10 و هفت درصد از ژنوتیپ‌ها در شرایط گلخانه‌ای و مزرعه‌ای مقاومت نشان دادند. در مرحله گیاه کامل واکنش 23 ژنوتیپ به صورت نیمه‌مقاوم (MR: moderately resistant) و 14 ژنوتیپ به‌صورت نیمه‌حساسMS: moderately susceptible) ) بود. ضریب همبستگی بین شدت نهایی آلودگی، با مقادیر ضریب آلودگی و سطح نسبی زیر منحنی پیشرفت بیماری (rAUDPC)، به ترتیب 989/0 و 949/0 بود. در نهایت 30 ژنوتیپ با خصوصیات مورد نظر یعنی شدت نهایی آلودگی 40-0 درصد، ضریب آلودگی 40-0 وrAUDPC بین 30-0 درصد به‌ عنوان ژنوتیپ‌های مطلوب انتخاب شدند. تجزیه خوشه‌ای ژنوتیپ‌های مورد نظر را در چهار گروه حساس (S: Sensetive)، نیمه‌حساس (MS)، نیمه‌مقاوم (MR) و مقاوم (R: Resistance) طبقه‌بندی کرد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification sources of resistance for leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss.) in Iranian wheat genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saba Delfan 1
  • MohammadReza Bihamta 2
  • Seyed Taha Dadrezaei 3
  • Alireza Abbasi 4
  • Hadi Alipour 5
1 PhD student in Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
2 Professor of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
3 Department of Center Research. Seed and Plant Improvement Institute. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO) Karaj, iran
4 Associate Professor of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Identification the sources of seedling and adult plant resistance genes is important for gene pyramiding, gene deployment, and developing durable wheat cultivars to control the leaf rust with Puccinia triticinea Erickss agent. In this study, 218 Iranian wheat genotypes collected from different regions were cultivated in one-meter lines in the experimental farm of Golestan Agricultural Research Station in Ahwaz during 2019-2020 and treated with Khouzestan leaf rust prevalent pathotypes including LR-98-8, LR-98-5, LR-94-5 and LR-9-4. Seedling reactions with five prevalent pathotypes were carried out in a randomized complete block design with two replications in the greenhouses of the Cereal Pathology Unit of Seed and Plant Breeding Institute, Karaj. To evaluate resistance, we used Infection Type (IT), AUDPC (Area Under Disease Progression Curve), Final Disease Severity(FDS) and Coefficient Infection (CI) indices. The results showed that 10 percent and 7 percent of the genotypes are resistant in greenhouse and field conditions, respectively. In the adult plant stage, the responses of 23 genotypes were moderately resistant (MR) and 14 genotypes were moderately susceptible (MS). The correlation coefficients between the final disease severity, with the coefficient infection and rAUDPC were 0.989 and 0.949, respectively. Finally, 30 genotypes with the desired characteristics, ie final disease severity between 0-40%, coefficient of infection between 0-40 and rAUDPC between 0-30% were selected as the suitable genotypes. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into four groups: susceptible (S), moderately susceptible (MS), moderately resistant (MR) and resistant (R).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wheat Leaf Rust
  • Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC)
  • Seedling Resistance
  • Adult Plant Resistance
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